Previous Years DNB Orthopaedics theory Papers - DNB Orthopaedics MS Orthopedics MRCS Exam GUIDE - Orthodnb.com

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Previous Years DNB Orthopaedics theory Papers

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2017 JunePAPER IPart A1. a)What is renal osteodystrophy?
b)Enumerate its causes
c)Its clinical & radiological features
d)Management of renal osteodystrophy
2. a)Role of Biofilm in implant infection in orthopedics
b)Biomechanics & clinical uses of floor reaction orthosis
3. a)Anatomy of ratator cuff
b)Clinical tests to diagnose rotator cuff tears & outline its management.
4. a)Nerve supply of urinary bladder
b)Patho-physiology & management of autonomous bladder.
5. a)Define osteoporosis
b)Enumerate various causes of osteoporosis
c)Enumerate techniques for bone mass measurement
d)Drug therapy available for osteoporosis.
Part B6. a)What is Milwaukee Shoulder Syndrome?
b)Its clinical signs & symptoms
c)Its differential diagnosis & management
7.a)Pathophysiology of peripheral nerve regeneration following axonotmesis
b)Anatomy & contents of carpal tunnel with suitable diagram(s).

Our site has been helping dnb ortho post graduates since a long time.It has been providing the dnb ortho theory question papers,dnb orthopedics solved question bank, davangere orthopaedic notes, sion orthopedic notes.We provide guidance to post graduates as to how to pass dnb and ms ortho exams, and aspiring orthopaedic surgeons.
8. a)Clinical signs & symptoms of a neglected Tendo-Achilles rupture 9. in a middle aged man
b)Outline its management.
9.a)Clinical & radiological features of aseptic loosening after cementless THA
b)Classification of cavus deformity.
10. a)Patho-physiology of compartment syndrome
b)Clinical signs of compartment syndrome
c)Principles of management of compartment syndrome
PAPER II
Part A
1. a)Management of acute septic arthritis of hip in an infant
b)Give any one classification system for septic sequelae of hip in children.
2. a)Symptoms & clinical signs of a rigid pes planus deformity
b)Radiological features of congenital vertical talus.
3. a)Clinical work up & laboratory diagnosis of metastatic bone tumours
b)Outline management principles of these in long bones.
4. a)Define spondylolisthesis
b)Its classification in adults
c)Its clinical features & radiological signs
d)Outline its management
5. a)Surgical anatomy of Ganz approach to hip joint
b)Indications of Ganz approach to hip joint
Part B6. a)What is triple deformity of the knee?
b)What are its causes?
c)Its management in TB arthritis of the knee.
7.a)Indication & surgical method of Zancolli’s capsulodesis
b)Clinical features & management of discoid meniscus.
8.Clinical presentation, radiological features & management of:
a)Chondromyxoid fibroma of distal femur
b)Osteoid osteoma of femoral neck
9.a)Prophylactic management of deep vein thrombosis before hip surgery
b)Fat embolism following fracture shaft femur in a young adult in casualty.
10. Clinical features, radiological features, differential diagnosis & management
principles of unilateral coxa vara in a toddler.
PAPER III
Part A
1.a)Classify the ankle fractures (Give any one system)
b)How will you manage supination external rotation injury?
2.a)Perilunate fracture dislocation & its management in an acute case
b)Potential complications of a chronic perilunate fracture dislocation.
3.a)Various clinical tests to assess glenohumeral instability
b)How will you manage anterior dislocation of shoulder with Bankart lesion & Hill- Sachs lesion
associated with dislocation?
4.a)What are the options available for the management of fracture of proximal third of femur in
an adolescent?
b)Advantages & disadvantages of each method.
5. a)What is terrible triad of elbow & how will you manage it?
b)Principles of management of intercondylar fracture humerus & Bryan Morrey approach
(Triceps reflecting approach).
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Part B6.a)What is reconstructive ladder for open fractures?
b)What is negative wound therapy?
c)What is fix & close protocol in open fractures?
7.a)Blood supply of scaphoid bone
b)Classify scaphoid fractures
c)Management of displaced, unstable scaphoid fractures.
8.a)How will you manage Gustilo-Anderson Type IIIb fracture of distal femur?
b)Compare pros & cons of angular stable device & dynamic compression screw for distal femur
fractures
c)Approach to bicondylar Hoffa’s fracture.
9.a)How will you treat unifacetal fracture dislocation of C5 C6?
b)What are the types of cord injuries?
c)Role of methyl-prednisolone succinate in spinal cord injuries.
10. a)What are the types of fracture healing?
b)Outline stages of endochondral fracture repair.
PAPER IV
Part A
1.a)What is the method to prepare Plasma Rich Plasma(PRP)?
b)What are the indications of PRP in orthopedic lesions? How does it work?
c)Role of local injection of steroid versus PRP in plantar fasciitis?
2.a)Different constructs of external fixators
b)What are the latest advances in construct of external fixator?
3.a)What is nanotechnology?
b)Role of nanotechnology in orthopaedics
c)Recent advances in detection of periprosthetic joint infections.
4.a)Management of marrow oedema syndrome
b)Management of SLAP lesions.
5. a)Molecular tests used in multidrug tuberculosis
b)Dosage & important side effects of second line drugs in osteoarticular tuberculosis
c)Role of PET to assess healing in osteoarticular tuberculosis.
Part B6.a)Role of templating in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA)
b)Outline the steps of templating in protrusion acetabuli & a laterised hip with
suitable diagrams.
7.a)What are the various types of grafts used to reconstruct ACL?
b)What is double bundle ACL reconstruction?
c)Steps to reconstruct multi-ligamentous injury around knee.
8.a)Role of navigation in total knee arthroplasty
b)What precautions you will take while doing total knee arthroplasty with fixed flexion & valgus
deformity in knee?
9.Recent advances in cup & stem designs of cemented & uncemented hips.
10. a)What are stem cells? How stem cells are procured for therapeutic use?
b)Indications of stem cell therapy in orthopaedics
c)Role of stem cell therapy in avascular necrosis of head of femur.
2016 DecPAPER I
Part A
1. a) Bearing surfaces in total hip replacement
b) Investigation & management of dislocation of hip after total hip arthroplasty.
2.a) Endoscopic spinal surgery- technique.
b) What is sacral nutation & its role in chronic low backache.
3. a) Salient features of tensile elastic nailing & technique of implantation.
b) Low molecular weight heparin- Indications & monitoring during treatment.
4. a) Clinical features of transient migratory osteoporosis of hip (TMO)
b) Tabulate the differences between osteonecrosis and transient migratory osteoporosis of hip.
c) Enumerate the steps of managing TMO.
5. a) Principles of reverse shoulder replacement. Enumerate its indications.
b) Radial head prosthesis- Design & technique of implantation
Part B6. a) Define osteoporosis. How will you assess for osteoporosis?
b) Principles of management of fragility (osteoporotic) fractures of long bones.
7. a) Radiological features for the diagnosis of tuberculosis of spine.
b) Radiological features of scurvy & rickets.
8. a) Blood supply of femoral head in various age groups.
b) Role of Virchow’s triad in the pathogenesis of DVT.
9. a) Clinical features of chronic pain & mid portion tendinopathy of Achilles tendon.
b) Role of plantaris tendon in the pathogenesis of this condition with special emphasis on
anatomy plantaris tendon
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10. a) Histology of growth plate.
b) Factors causing growth disturbance.
c) Principles of guided growth modulation.
PAPER II
Part A
1. a) Physiology of calcium metabolism.
b) Role of PTH in calcium metabolism.
c) Tabulate the biochemical differences between renal tubular & glomerular rickets.
2. Pathophysiology, clinical features & management of septic arthritis of hip in a neonate.
3. a) Use of Plaster of Paris in orthopaedics & precautions in applying hip spica
b) Principles of functional cast bracing.
4. a) Type of bone grafts.
b) Principles of bone banking.
5. a) Ganga score.
b) Vacuum assisted closure of wounds.
Part B6. a) Staging of bone tumours.
b) Principles, indications & contraindications of limb salvage surgery.
7. a) Pathology & clinical features of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in long bones.
b) Management of chronic osteomyelitis of long bone.
8. a) Pathogenesis & diagnosis of Bankart’s lesion.
b) Anterolateral decompression in tuberculosis of spine.
9. a) Aetiopathogenesis of hand to knee gait.
b) Biomechanical features of floor reaction orthosis.
10. a) Outline the technical steps to achieve desired degree of version of acetabular & femoral
components during THR.
b) What is combined angle of anteversion?
c) How will you modify your version in a case of fixed lumbar lordosis or flat back?
PAPER III
Part A
1. a) ATLS guidelines in polytrauma management.
b) Early Total Care (ETC) in polytrauma & its indications.
2. a) Indication & techniques of hip arthroscopy.
b) Can you manage an incongruent reduction after a reduced hip dislocation because of loose
body with hip arthroscopy?
c) What is an absolute contraindication to manage such a case with conventional hip
arthroscopy?
3. A 5-year-old child starts developing a progressive valgus deformity of tibia after an
insignificant trauma to the knee. What is the possible cause & pathogenesis of such a
deformity? How will you treat this condition?
4. a) Classify distal femoral fractures.
b) Management algorithm for such fractures.
5. a) Classify nerve injuries.
b) How will you manage a 1 year old child with median nerve injury in the middle of the arm.
Part B6 a) Management of Volar Barton’s fracture.
b) Pathological anatomy & management of trans-scaphoid perilunate dislocation.
7. a) Classify fractures around the elbow in a six-year-old child.
b) Myositis ossificans- Diagnosis & management.
8. a) Management of postoperative knee stiffness.
b) Anatomy of posterolateral corner of knee & various patterns of injuries in this area.
9. a) Masquelet technique: indication & steps in an infected nonunion
b) Evolution of different generations of cementing techniques in arthroplasty.
10. a) Classify injuries of thoracolumbar spine.
b) Outline management of each type.
PAPER IV
Part A
1. a) Clinical & radiological features of developmental dysplasia of hip.
b) Types of pelvic osteotomies for acetabular dysplasia.
2. a) Intrinsic plus hand.
b) Ulnar paradox.
3. a) Path-anatomy & Pirani scoring in congenital talipes equino-varus.
b) Steps of Ponseti manipulation & serial cast application.
4.a) Define Perthes’ disease
b) Aetiological factors, classification systems & head-at-risksigns of Perthes’ disease.
5. a) Classify torticollis.
b) Management of torticollis.
c) Sprengel shoulder deformity.
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Part B6. a) Management of degenerative arthritis of knee in the young patients.
b) Visco-supplementation for knee arthritis.
7. a) Arthroscopic management of osteochondral lesion of knee.
b) Etiology of osteochondritis dessicans,
8. a) Modified Stoppa’s approach for acetabulum fractures.
b) Classification of brachial plexus injury.
9. a) Define drug resistant tuberculosis.
b) How do you suspect drug resistance in spinal tuberculosis?
c) How will you investigate & manage a case of suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis?
10. a) Enumerate the causes of painful stiff knee after total knee replacement.
b) How will you investigate & manage such a case?
2016 JunePAPER I
PART A
1. a) Define coxa vara.
b) Etiology, Clinical features & Management of Congenital Coxa Vara 2+(2+2+4)
2. a) Pathophysiology of Pott’s spine
b) Routes through which a tubercular abscess can travel to far off regions in the body based on
anatomical facts. 5+5
3. a) How will you treat a “Borderline Patient” of Polytrauma.
b) Hypotensive resuscitation. 5+5
4. a) Fibrous dysplasia of bone?
b) Clinical features of Fibrous dysplasia of bone. c) Campanacci disease (Osteofibrous
dysplasia). 2+3+5
4.a) Phases of Gait cycle.
b) Trendelenburg Gait.
c) Why a patient with hip pain walks with a stick in the opposite hand? Illustrate your answer
with suitable diagrams. 3+3+4
PART B6. a) Clinical features & Pathophysiology of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis- SCFE.
b) What could be the medical conditions associated with it?
c) What is the difference in the radiological picture of Delbet type-I fracture neck femur &
SCFE? 4+2+4
7. a) Pathophysiology of venous thromboembolic disease in patients with skeletal trauma.
b) Discuss the chemical prophylaxis options, with pros and cons of each modality. 5+5
8. a) What is the “watershed zone” of the spinal cord?
b) Draw a cross section of the spinal cord in the dorsal region.
c) Stages of Pott’s paraplegia in a typical paravertebral lesion based on the anatomy of tracts.
2+3+5
9. a) What is Scapular Dyskinesia?
b) Its role in Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome. 4+6
10. a) Outline the biomechanical principles of Total Knee Replacement.
b) Gap Balancing Technique. 5+5
PAPER II
PART A
1.a) Clinical and radiological features of congenital vertical talus.
b) Differential diagnosis and management of congenital vertical talus. (3+2)+(2+3)
2. a) Sacroiliitis – Etiology & diagnosis.
b) Tardy Ulnar Nerve Palsy. 5+5
3. a) Hallux valgus deformity
b) Role of Triple arthrodesis 5+5
4. a) Classify Periprosthetic fractures around Knee arthroplasty.
b) Principles and management of each type. 4+6
5. a) Current status of Hip Arthroscopy.
b) Its indications in contemporary orthopaedic practice.
c) Explain the important steps of the procedure. 3+3+4
PART B6. a) Define cerebral palsy and write about its classification based on the pattern of
involvement.
b) Clinical features of “crouch gait” and its management. (1+3)+(2+4)
7. a) Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome.
b) Schwannoma — Clinical features & diagnosis. 5+5
8. Clinical features, pathology and radiological findings of “Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal
Hyperostosis (DISH)”. 3+3+4
9. a) Clinical features and radiology of Chondroblastoma.
b) How will you manage a case of chondroblastoma of hip? (3+2)+5
10. a) Osteochondritis dissecans of ankle
b) SPONK (Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of Knee). 5+5
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PAPER III
PART A
1.a) Classify fractures of proximal humerus.
b) What is the relevance of blood supply of humeral head in planning management of fracture
of proximal humerus?
c) Management of four part fracture in an elderly man. 3+3+4
2. a) Management of fracture shaft humerus with radial nerve palsy.
b) What is Holstein Lewis lesion and its management? 6+4
3. a) Classification of fracture neck of talus.
b) Outline the principles of its management.
c) What is Hawkin’s Sign? 3+5+2
4. a) Enumerate the biologic and biophysical technologies for the enhancement of fracture
repair.
b) Use of BMP in orthopaedics. 6+4
5. a) Labral tears of hip in young athletes.
b) Stress fractures – Etiopathogenesis & diagnosis. 5+5
PART B6. a) Post traumatic tibia valga
b) Reperfusion injury 5+5
7. a) Evolution of plate osteosynthesis starting from ‘Sherman” plates to present day locking
plates.
b) What are the principles of locking plate osteosynthesis including their advantages and
disadvantages? 6+4
8. a) Classify tibial plateau fractures.
b) Ideal time and technique for fixation of a Type IV tibial plateau fracture. 3+7
9. a) Sideswipe injuries of elbow.
b) How will you manage such cases? 4+6
10. a) Classify trochanteric fractures of hip.
b) Pros and cons of their management with DHS/PFN. 4+6
PAPER IV
PART A
1. Recent advances in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with reference to creation of femoral
tunnel and femoral fixation methods. 5+5
2. a) Recent advances in detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
b) Enumerate various newer methods with their sensitivity & specificity.
c) GeneXpert/CB-NATT & its specific advantages. 3+2+5
3. a) What is the role of PCL in knee arthroplasty?
b) Benefits of PCL retention Vs substitution. 4+(3+3)
4. a) Orthopaedic manifestations of AIDS.
b) Guidelines to prevent spread of HIV infection during operative intervention. 5+5
5. a) Safety measures in Scoliotic Surgery.
b) Role of Meniscal repair in the knee joint. 5+5
PART B6. a) Role of ultrasound in musculoskeletal diseases.
b) Robotic orthopaedic surgery. 5+5
7. a) ACL injuries in female athletes.
b) Molecular based diagnostic technology in osteomyelitis. 5+5
8. a) Pathophysiology of Cuff tear arthropathy.
b) Principles of Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty. 5+5
9.Recent advances in the management of polytrauma patient highlighting the role of various
investigative and treatment modalities. 5+5
10. a) Orthobiologics.
b) Diagnosis of gout, newer drugs in gout and its specific indications. 5+5
2015 DecPAPER I
PART A
1. a) Classify osteoporosis.
b) Clinical presentation and management of senile osteoporosis.
2. a) Indications and complications of amputations.
b) Early management of closed above knee amputation.
3. Anatomy and blood supply of proximal end of femur and its importance in safe surgical
dislocation of hip.
4. a) Fracture healing.
b) Various factors influencing fracture healing.
5. a) Morning stiffness.
b) Angular deformity of knee in children.
PART B6. Course of Radial Nerve and its applied surgical significance.www.orthodnb.com 5
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7. Etiopathogenesis, clinical features, prevention and management of Volkmann’s ischaemic
contracture.
8. What is thoracic outlet syndrome? Discuss briefly about its various causes
9. a) Motor March
b) Painful Arc Syndrome — Etiopalhogenesis & management
10. a) Pseudo fractures
b) Myositis ossificans – Diagnosis & management.
PAPER II
PART A
1. a) Enumerate various causes of limp in a child.
b) Clinical features and management of painful limp with high grade fever in a 5 year old child.
2. a) Causes of maltracking of patella.
b) Surgical management of Recurrent Dislocation of Patella in a child.
3. Diagnosis and management of Pott’s paraplegia.
4. a) Knuckle Bender Splint
b) Pantalar Arthrodesis
5. a) Synovial Chondromatosis — Diagnosis & management.
b) Osteoid Osteoma — Diagnosis & management.
PART B6. a) Differentiate between Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
b) Management of osteoarthritis of knee in an elderly.
7. Etiopathogenesis. clinical features. diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel syndrome.
8. a) Classify Scoliosis.
b) Clinical features and management of idiopathic scoliosis.
9. a) Enumerate various causes of Coxa Vara.
b) Diagnosis and management of Sipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis.
10. a) Triple deformity of knee
b) Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome- Clinical features & management.
PAPER III
PART A
1. a) Classify open fractures.
b) Management of open fracture of shaft of tibia in a tertiary care setting.
2. a) Enumerate causes of stiff elbow.
b) Surgical management of post traumatic ankylosis of elbow in extension.
3. a) Define polytrauma.
b) Clinical presentation, complications and general principles of management of polytrauma.
4. a) Role of ligamentotaxis in acute trauma.
b) PTB Cast.
5. a) Tension Band Wiring
b) Brown Sequard syndrome – Etiopathogenesis & clinical features.
PART B6. a) Classify traumatic dislocation of shoulder.
b) Diagnosis and management of neglected posterior dislocation of shoulder in a young adult.
7. a) Classify acetabular fractures.
b) Role of radiological investigations in management of acetabular fractures.
8. a) Acute management of traumatic knee dislocation.
b) Classify multiligament knee injury & principles of managing such cases.
9. a) Crush Syndrome
b) Spinal Shock.
10. a) Herbert Screw.
b) Skeletal traction in acute trauma.
PAPER IV
PART A
1. Bone bank and the role of allografts in orthopaedic practice.
2. Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of Rheumatoid arthritis.
3. Limb salvage in malignant bone tumors with special emphasis on osteosarcoma of distal end
of femur.
4. a) Minimum Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis.
b) Distraction Histogenesis.
5. a) Wake up test.
b) Bioabsorbable Implants.
PART B6. Increasing role of minimum invasive techniques in orthopaedics and the role of arthroscopy
in the management of intra-articular fractures.
7. Problems encountered and the use of various modalities in surgical management of fragility
fractures.
8. a) Common surgical factors affecting the early outcome of total hip arthroplasty.
b) Recent advances in the field of total hip arthroplasty
9. a) Terrible triad of death
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b) Scapular dyskinesis
10. a) Role of Whole Body CT Scan in trauma.
b) Role of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Orthopaedics
2015 JunePAPER- I
PART A
1. Pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Rickets
2. A) Structure of physis with suitable diagrams,
B)Classify the physeal injuries.
3. Evidence based medicine.
4. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Fat Embolism Syndrome.
5. Role of nuclear scan studies in orthopedic practice.
PART B6.a) Gait cycle,
b) List various types of gaits,
c) Features of Antalgic and Trendelenburg gait.
7. a) Synovial fluid analysis,
b) Wallerian degeneration.
8. a) Nerve conduction velocity,
b) Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment of Carpal tunnel syndrome.
9. a) Properties of bone graft,
b) Different types of bone grafts, bone graft substitute and their incorporation.
10. a) Role of biofilm in implant infection,
b) Production, regulation and management of biofilm.
PAPER II
PART A
1.a) Dupuytren’s contracture,
b) Tibial hemimelia.
2. a) Sunderland’s classification of nerve injury,
b) Tendon transfers or ulnar nerve palsy.
3. Surgical steps of: a) Hardinge approach to hip,
b) Antero-lateral decompression of D5 – D6 spine.
4.a) ATT regimens in bone and joint tuberculosis,
b) Safe surgical dislocation: indications and key steps.
5. a) Clinical and radiological features in diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of hip(DDH),
b) Treatment of unilateral DDH in an 18-month old child.
PART B6. a) Stage of tubercular arthritis hip,
b) Differentiating clinical features, treatment and prognosis of each stage.
7. Differentiate between a) Neurological and vascular claudication,
b) Paraplegia with active disease (Early onset paraplegia) and paraplegia with healed disease
(Late onset paraplegia).
8. a) Enumerate fibrous lesions of bone,
b) Clinical features, diagnosis and management of fibrous dysplasia of bone.
9. a) Osgood – Schlatter disease,
b) Congenital vertical talus.
10.a) Flexor zones of hand,
b) Clinical features and management of a 2 month old with zone 2 injury.
PAPER III
Part A
1.a) What is reverse shoulder arthroplasty?
b) How is it different from conventional shoulder arthroplasty?
2.a) Randomized control trial,
b) Instrumentation in spinal tuberculosis- rationale and indications.
3.Applications of MRI in diagnosis and management of spinal tumours.
4.Differentiate between a) Primary and secondary fracture healing,
b) SACH foot and Jaipur foot.
5. a) enumerate the bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty,
b) advantages and disadvantages of each bearing surfaces.
Part B6. Classify periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures after Total hip arthroplasty and their treatment
options.
7.a) Classify calcaneal fractures,
b) Management principles and complications of calcaneal fracture.
8.a) Mangled extremity severity score(MESS)
b) Ganga score.
9. a) Pulseless pink hand following a supracondylar fracture of a humerus in a child
b) Hoffa’s fracture
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10. a) Enumerate the causes of rupture of Achilles tendon,
b) Diagnosis and treatment of a fresh case of rupture of Achilles tendon in 60 yr old patient.
PAPER IV
Part A
1.a) Classify Tibial plateau fracture,
b) Mechanism of injury, evaluation and treatment of each type.
2. a) Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality(SCIWORA),
b) Hangman’s fracture.
3. a) Define compartment syndrome,
b) Clinical features, investigations and management of acute compartment syndrome of leg.
4. a) Mechanism of injury of ‘unhappy triad of O’donoghue’,
b) Outline management of chronic ACL insufficiency in a young athlete.
5. a) Ligamentotaxis,
b) Classification of fracture of distal end of radius.
Part B6. a) Oncogenic osteomalacia,
b) Autologous chondrocyte implantation.
7. Current concepts in management of osteosarcoma.
8. a) DMARDS in rheumatoid arthritis,
b) Local antibiotic delivery.
9. Current concepts in the management of skeletal metastasis.
10. a) Classify neglected femoral neck fracture in adults,
b) Treatment with rationale in each type of neglected femoral neck fracture.
2014 DecPAPER I
Part-A
1. Define torticollis. Enumerate signs and symptoms of congenital torticollis in a 9 year old child.
How will you manage spasmodic torticollis in a child?
2. Define trigger finger. Enumerate causes of trigger finger. Describe the clinical picture and
surgical management of trigger thumb.
3. What is myoelectric prosthesis? Describe its components, applications & advantages.
4. Describe the anatomy of common peroneal nerve (CPN). Name the muscles supplied by the
nerve and the tendon transfers in CPN palsy.
5. Clinical features and complications of tuberculosis 5. of cervical spine.
Part-B6. Clinical features of gout & management of acute attack of gout?
7.Enumerate causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) and non arthroplasty surgical methods of AVN
of femoral head. Describe core decompression.
8. a) Iliotibial band.
b) Bone cement,
9. a) Chymopapain.
b) Methotrexate in orthopaedic practice.
10. Frozen shoulder: Clinical features & management.
PAPER II
Part-A
1. Steps of Ponsetti methods of CTEV correction.
2. Compound palmar ganglion.
3. a) Bikini incision.
b) Schanz osteotomy
4. a) Cleidocranial dysostosis.
b) Genu valgum
5.a) Vascular claudication.
b) Synovial fluid
Part-B6. a) Gluteus maximus flap in the management of decubitus ulcer
b) Stove-in-chest.
7. a) Fibrous dysplasia
b) Corticotomy
8.a) Factors influencing spinal curve progression in congenital scoliosis.
b) Neurofibromastosis.
9. What is felon? What is its preferred management? How it is different from paronychia?
10. Draw, diagram(s) of anatomic and biomechanical axis of lower limb & briefly discuss the
biochemical principles of total knee replacement.
PAPER III
Part-A
1. What is cast syndrome? Enumerate its clinical symptoms and discuss its
management.
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2. Mechanism, clinical features and management of scaphoid fracture. Classify open fractures.
Discuss the emergency management of grade 3B (Gustilo & Anderson Classification) open
fractures of tibia.
4. a) Damage control Orthopaedics.
b) Stress fracture.
5. Define “Virchow’s Triad”. Discuss the management of DVT.
Part-B6.a) Stimson method to reduce posterior dislocation of hip.
b) Cubitus valgus
7. a) Bankart’s lesion.
b) Necrotizing fasciitis.
8. a) Metabolic acidosis.
b) Post-operative fever.
9. Define component therapy. Enumerate and mention uses of various blood fractions.
10. What is pneumatic tourniquet? Discuss its uses, complications & safety guidelines.
PAPER IV
Part-A
1.a) Gene therapy in Orthopaedics.
b) Induced membrane formation to cover bone defects.
2. What are commonly used absorbable sutures In Orthopaedics? Compare their properties.
3. What is “Sandwich technique’’? Describe the technique in the management of Giant cell
tumour of distal end of radius.
4. Indications, positioning, portals and complications of hip arthroscopy.
5. Role of bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis and their complications.
Part-B6. PET scan in Orthopaedic practice.
7. Vascular fibular grafting in the management of neglected fracture neck of femur.
8. a) Autologous transfusion,
b) Platelet rich plasma
9. Advances in articular cartilage 9. tissue engineering.
10. a) Telemedicine,
b) Bionic arm.
June 2014PAPER I
PART A
1.Describe the stages of fracture healing. List the factors influencing the fracture healing. What
are the causes of non-union?
2. Define peak bone mass. What factors affect attaining peak bone mass? How does it correlate
with osteoporosis?
3. Describe the principles of ultrasonography. Discuss its clinical use in Orthopaedic practice.
4. Write briefly the current presentation and treatment strategies in MRSA infection. Briefly
mention about its evaluation.
5. Describe the potential spaces of hand. Discuss clinical features and treatment of deep space
infection of hand.
PART B
6.
Allograft – Definition, types, principles of preparation, advantages and disadvantages.
7. Wallerian degeneration – Definition and pathology.
8. a) Principles of Tendon transfer.
b) Tendon transfer for high radial nerve palsy.
9. What is evidence based medicine? Describe the hierarchy of evidence. Discuss the
differences in various types of studies.
10. Enumerate the differential diagnosis of a limping child (10 years). Differentiate between a
case of septic arthritis with transient synovitis.
PAPER II
PART A
1.Describe the indications of surgery in tuberculosis of spine. Discuss role of instrumented
stabilization in TB spine.
2. Describe the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Madelung deformity.
3. Describe the flexor zones of hand. Outline the treatment of flexor tendon injury (acute and
chronic) in zone II.
4. Discuss pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of L4-L5 intervertebral disc
prolapse.
5. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Pigmented villonodular
synovitis.
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PART B6.Discuss in brief pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of fibrous dysplasia of
bone.
7. List the osteotomies around hip. Write briefly about the principles of each osteotomy.
8. Define the recurrent dislocation of patella. Discuss in brief its clinical features, diagnosis and
treatment.
9. Define distraction histiogenesis. Discuss the principles of distraction histiogenesis. Enumerate
the indications of distraction histiogenesis in Orthopaedic practice.
10. Define Tom Smith’s hip arthritis. Discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and
sequalae.
PAPER III
PART A
1. Classify fracture of acetabulum. Outline treatment of specific fracture patterns.
2. Classify fracture neck and femur in children. Discuss the treatment principles and prognosis.
3. What is whiplash injury of cervical spine? Discuss its clinical features, diagnosis and
treatment.
4. Discuss the tension band principles. Describe its clinical use in fracture management.
5. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of acute compartment
syndrome.
PART B1. Discuss the ‘ASIA SCORE”. Classify bladder paralysis in spinal cord injury with salient features.
7. Classify ankle injuries. Discuss in brief the treatment principles of each type.
8. Classify epiphyseal injuries. Describe the treatment principles and complications of each
type.
9. Describe the classification used for open fractures. Discuss in brief Ganga score.
10. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment principles of nonunion of
fracture scaphoid.
PAPER IV
PART A
1. List the various generations of cementing techniques. Discuss their differences in brief.
2. Differentiate between parosteal and periosteal osteosarcoma in terms of pathology, clinical
features, treatment and prognosis.
3. Describe in brief the current state of knowledge of use of stem cells in Orthopaedic practice.
4. Describe principles and clinical use of: a) PET Scan b) Bone Scan
5. Discuss principles of limb salvage surgery in malignant bone tumour. List the indications and
contraindications.
PART B6.Discuss the surgical steps of: a) Anterolateral decompression of D5-6 tuberculosis of spine
b) Anterolateral exposure of hip.
7.a) Plagiarism
b) Impact factor
8. Describe the pathology of nerve regeneration. Classify nerve injuries.
9. Describe the role of PCL in knee arthroplasty. Discuss the benefits of PCL retention v/s
substitution.
10. Name the biomaterials used in Orthopaedics. Discuss their characteristic features.
2013 DecPAPER I
Part A
1. Briefly describe the etiology, diagnosis & management of ‘Thoracic outlet syndrome’.
2. Define & enumerate the etiology of ‘Neuropathic arthropathy’. Discuss in brief the
diagnosis & principles of its management.
3. Discuss in brief the presentation, diagnosis & management of ‘Multiple Myeloma’.
4. a)Fluorosis,
b)Halo-pelvic device
5. a)Necrotising fasciitis
b)Femoro-acetabular Impingement Syndrome
Part B6.Briefly discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis & differential diagnosis & broad principles
of management of Tuberculosis of Dorsal Spine with Paraplegia.
7. Briefly describe the etiology & patho-anatomy of recurrent dislocation of shoulder. Outline
the principles of management.
8. Briefly discuss the methods of nerve repair & methods of closing gaps between nerve ends.
9. a)High tibial osteotomy
b)Valgus osteotomy (Hip)
10. a)Wound ballistics
b)Fat Embolism
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PAPER II
Part A
1. Briefly describe the clinical presentations in ‘rheumatoid hand’. Discuss in brief the
pathoanatomy of these lesions.
2. Describe in brief the patho-anatomy, diagnosis & outlines of management of
congenital dysplasia of the hip.
3. Discuss the presentation, X-ray picture & management of dietary rickets.
4. a)Anterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrom
b)Erb’s palsy
5. a)Metatarsus adductus
b)Botulinum
Part B6.What is a myo-electric prosthesis? Describe its components, applications & advantages in
brief.
7. Describe the classification & principles of management of congenital pseudoarthrosis of tibia.
8. Discuss the management of ‘claw hand’ in a patient suffering from Leprosy.
9. a)Hip Arthrography
b)Ponseti technique in CTEV
10. a)Strength Duration Curve
b)Elctromyography.
PAPER III
Part A
1.Classify proximal humerus fractures & discuss the management in elderly patients & its
complications.
2.Describe clinical features, relevant investigation & management of Whiplash Injury in cervical
spine.
3.Classify Glenoid fractures & discuss its management. What is floating shoulder & how is it
managed?
4. Enumerate various factors responsible for post traumatic stiffness of elbow. Discuss the
management of stiff elbow.
5. Discuss in brief etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis & management of gas gangrene.
Part B6. Discuss the etiology, diagnosis & management of an infected fracture shaft femur in an adult
after surgery for the fracture.
7. Enumerate complications of total knee arthroplasty. Classify periprosthetic fractures &
discuss their management.
8. How will you diagnose Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury clinically? Discuss the
investigations & management of ACL injury in young athlete reporting after injury.
9. Classify fracture neck of talus. Discuss their management ? What is Hawkins sign?
10. Discuss the indications of amputations. Discuss the principles of amputations in children &
adults
PAPER IV
Part A
1.What is bone cement? What are the indications & contraindications for its usage? What are
the methods of bone cementing? Mention its complications.
2. a)Spinal canal stenosis
b)Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
3. Discuss physiology of normal articular cartilage & its biomechanical functions. Discuss the
advances in articular cartilage tissue engineering & repair.
4. a)Highly crossed linked polyethylene
b)PET Scan
5. Enumerate various methods for bone mineral measurement. Define its density in various
conditions. Discuss management of osteoporotic fractures.
Part B6. a)Tourniquet in Orthopedics
b)Neurological bladder
7. What is a Tubercle? Discuss patho-anatomy, diagnosis & principles of management of cold
abscess.
8. a)Effects of reaming of bone
b)Biofilm
9. Define shock. Discuss management of shock in a polytrauma patient.
10.Describe various bone graft substitutes, their method of application, ways of incorporation
& complications.
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2. Bone healing & factors influencing it.
3. Posterior Dislocation of Hip- Clinical presentation, methods of reduction &
complications.
4. a. Plaster of Paris
b. Bone Cement
c. Torus Fracture
5. Non-Ossifying Fibroma: Clinical features, radiology & treatment
Part B6. Classification of Nerve Injuries & their prognosis
7. Differentiating features between Osteonecrosis & Transient migratory osteoporosis.
8. Design of Pelvic C-clamp, indication of its application & method of fixation of an
unstable fracture
9. Tuberculoma,Primary drugs for treatment of tuberculosis of spine & complication of
Isoniazid,
Streptomycin & Ethambutol.
10. a. Vitamin D resistant rickets
b. Cast syndrome
Paper II
Part A
1. Kienbock’s disease- etiology, diagnosis & management
2. Acute Osteomyelitis- Clinical features, Investigations & management.
3. CTEV-pathoanatomy
4. Dupuytren’s fracture dislocation & its management
5. a. Mallet Finger
b. Blood supply of scaphoid bone
Part B6. Epiphyseal Injury & its classification, management of S-H type IV epiphyseal injury
7. a. Discoid meniscus
b. Congenital muscular torticolis
8.Principle of application of Milwaukee Brace; Idiopathic Kyphoscoliosis- clinical features &
indications of surgical Intervention
9. Jaipur foot; Absolute & relative indications of amputation.
10. Sudeck’s atrophy- etiology, clinical features & treatment.
Paper III
Part A
1.Portals of Arthroscopy of knee joint; Various arthroscopies, their accessories & indications of
arthroscopy of knee joint
2. Classification of pelvic fractures, various radiological views for assessing pelvic injuries &
management of rotationally unstable pelvic injuries
3. Ilizarov fixator & corticotomy; management of a case of defect non-union.
4.a. Myositis ossificans b. Habitual dislocation of patella.
5. VAC; management of a case of compound fracture tibia with no neurovascular deficit.
Part B6.Damage control orthopaedics: Management of a case of fracture shaft of femur with lung
contusions in an adult.
7. a. Gram negative septicemia
b. LCP
8. Osteoporosis- Dfn, various radiological investigations in a pt with osteoporosis; management
of a case of fracture D12 in an adult.
9. Osteogenesis imperfecta- clinical features, types; differentiate it from Battered Baby
syndrome
10. Diagram(s) of Brachial plexus; clinically differentiate preganglionic from post ganglionic
lesions.
Paper IV
Part A
1. Describe the blood supply of femoral head. How does it differ in children & adults?
2. Describe the anatomy of Tibialis posterior tendon. What is posterior Tibial tendon
dysfunction? Describe the management of such cases.
3. Describe the anatomy of parathyroid gland. Describe clinical features & radiological
presentation of adenoma of parathyroid. What is hungry bone syndrome?
4. Discuss the Etiopathogenesis, clinical features & management of alkaptonuria.
5. What are the indications of excision of head of radius? Describe the postero-lateral
approach.
Part B6.a. BMP
b. Allografts
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7. Describe the anatomy of central & lateral canals in the lumbar spine in relation to lumbar
canal stenosis. How will you clinically differentiate central from lateral lumbar canal stenosis.
Briefly describe the management.
8. Describe the gross physical features of synovial fluid. Discuss the characteristics features in
various pathological conditions vis a vis microscopic & biochemical analysis.
9. Describe the mechanism of bacterial colonization & perpetuation in osteomyelitis after
orthopaedic implant surgery. How is the situation different in tubercular infection of
musculoskeletal system?
10. a. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.
b. Combined angle of anteversion during total hip arthroplasty.
2012 DecPAPER 11. Differentiate between: a) Primary bone healing and secondary bone healing.
b) DCP and locked compression plate
2. Define functional cast bracing. Discuss the indications and principles of applications of
patellar tendon bearing cast.
3. Describe the biomechanics of hip. Discuss Trendelenburg test and gait.
4. a) Ganga score
b) Spine at risk sign
5. Describe the principles of ultrasonography. List the usage of ultrasonography in
orthopedic practice.
6. Briefly describe methods to cover defects after excision of primary malignant tumors of
bone. What is extracorporeal irradiated tumour bone?
7. a) Scurvy
b) Hyperparathyroidism
8. a) Impact factor -
b) Plagiarism
c) Randomized Control Trial (RCT)
9. Describe the anatomy of posterior cruciate ligament. Discuss the pros and cons of
cruciate retaining Vs cruciate sacrificing total knee replacement.
10. Bleeding disorders encountered in orthopedic practice. What is a hemophilíc
pseudotumor? Discuss its management.
PAPER II1. Discuss the pathology, clinical features and management of synovial chondromatosis.
2. What is “Diffuse Interstitial Skeletal Hyperostosis’? Describe the clinical features and its
management.
3. What is compartment syndrome? Discuss aetiology, clinical picture and management of
compartment syndrome of the leg.
4. What is surgical dislocation of the hip joint? Enumerate the indications and key technical
steps.
5. a) IT (Iliotibial) band contracture in Polio
b) Strength duration curve
6. a) Giant cell variants
b) Psoas abscess
7. Define the “Borderline” patient in polytrauma. Discuss the clinical and investigative
parameters to decide whether the patient should be managed by Early Total Care (ETC) vs.
Damage Control Orthopedics (DCO).
8. a) Management strategies `in a HIV patient with a fresh compound fracture of leg bones.
b) Mádelung deformity.
9. Describe in brief etiology, pathology, clinical presentation and the principles of
management of Charcots joints.
10. What is reverse shoulder replacement? How is it different from conventional shoulder
arthroplasty? Enumerate the indications & biochemical basis of the design of this prosthesis.
PAPER III1. Discuss the pathogenesis, clinical features and management of Dupuytren's contracture.
2. Describe the classification, clinical features and management of tibial hemimelia.
3. Describe the flexor tendon zones of the hand. Describe the management of cut flexor
tendons of middle finger in zone Ill.
4. Describe the classification of Perthe's disease. Enumerate 'Head at Risk’ signs. List prognostic
factors in Perthe’s disease.
5. Write short notes on:
a) Electrodiagnosis in carpal tunnel syndrome
b) Salter's osteotomy.
6. Write short notes on:
a) Isokinetic exercises
b) Steenbeek brace
7. Describe the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy.
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8. Describe the pathology, clinical features, radiological findings and treatment of diaphyseal
aclasis.
9. What is crouch gait? How will you evaluate such a patient? Discuss the management.
10. Write short notes on:
a) Quadriceps contracture of infancy and childhood.
b) Pathoanatomy of clubfoot.
PAPER IV1. Classify acromioclavicular joint injuries. Discuss diagnosis & management.
2. Describe the mechanism of injury, classification and treatment of Hangman’s fracture.
3. Describe the mechanism of injury and classification of tibia! pilon fracture. Discuss the
management.
4. Classify perioperative femoral stem fractures around the hip joint. Discuss the treatment
options.
5. Write short notes on: -
a) Role of injectable methyl prednisolone in post-traumatic spinal injuries.
b) Classification of incomplete spinal cord syndromes.
6. Classify acetabular fracture. Outline the treatment of each fracture type.
7. Define post traumatic stiff knee. Discuss in brief its causes, diagnosis and management.
8. What are the components of “Terrible triad of the Elbow"? Describe the mechanism and
principles of management.
9. Discuss the diagnosis of radial nerve palsy. Suggest the treatment guidelines for closed
fracture of humerus with radial nerve palsy.
10. Define hierarchy of evidence. Define broad principles of each level of evidence.
2012 JunePAPER I1. Define MDR Tuberculosis. Discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of a case of
MDR tuberculosis of spine (1+2+3+4)
2. Discuss the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and Differential Diagnosis of
Heterotopic Ossification (3+3+4)
3. Discuss treatment options of the focal cartilage defect over the medial femoral condyle in a
40 yr old man (10)
4. Discuss the management of deep vein thrombosis in orthopaedic patients
5. Describe the illustrative diagrams of the surgical exposure of radius at various levels
6. Describe the surgical reconstruction in a case of one and a half yr old common peroneal
nerve palsy (10)
7. Describe the principles of stabilization of foot
8. Write in brief (5+5) a. Ceramic bearing surfaces in arthroplasty
b. Bone scan in musculoskeletal disorder.
9. Enumerate causes of claw hand deformity. Discuss its management in short (3+7)
10. Write brief notes on 4+(3+3) a. Alendronate induced fractures
b. Diagnosis and treatment of osteomalacia
PAPER II1. Describe the treatment of acute flexor tendon injuries in various zones of hand (10)
2. Describe the Aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Madelung deformity(3+3+4)
3. Describe the clinical features ,diagnosis and management of tuberculosis hip in
children(3+3+4)
4. Discuss the differential diagnosis and investigation in an 8 yr old child with persistent
limp((5+5)
5. Classify congenital skeletal limb deficiencies(10)
6. Discuss in brief(5+5) a. Sequelae of pyogenic arthritis of hip in infancy
b. Intoeing gait
7. Describe the aetiopathology and management of SCFE(4+6)
8. Write SN on (5+5) a. FRO
b. IFT (interferential therapy)
9. WRite brief notes on (5+5) a.Role of orthosis in treatmnt of clubfoot
b.patellar tendon bearing prosthesis
10. Write brief notes on (5+5) a.Clinical and radiological diagnosis of scurvy
b.Adolescnt coxa vara
PAPER III1. Describe the management of failed osteosynthesis of fracture neck of femur in a young
adult(10)
2. Discuss the management of diaphyseal gap nonunion with 5 cm bone loss in a young
adult(10)
3. Describe the tension band principle and how it is used in fracture care(5+5)
4. Describe the classification of thoracolumbar injuries and discuss the treatment of burst
fracture L1(5+5)
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5. Describe the classification, clinical features and management of Lisfranc's fracture
dislocation(3+3+4)
6. Describe the Sander's classification of calcaneal fractures and discuss the treatment of each
type (4+6)
7. Describe the classification of the distal humeral fractures in adults. Describe the surgical
approaches used for internal fixation of these fractures (4+6)
8. Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Discuss the treatment of nonunion of
scaphoid (4+6)
9. Describe the mechanism of injury of Radial head fracture. Discuss its classification and
management (3+3+4)
10. Write SN on (5+5) a. External fixator in musculoskeletal injuries
b. Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infection.
PAPER IV1. Describe the structure of bone with illustrative diagram(s) (10)
2. List the factors affecting Ca-metabolism. Describe the radiological features of
rickets (5+5)
3. Write SN on nuclear medicine and its applications in Orthopaedics (5+5)
4. Discuss the anatomical basis of thoracic outlet syndrome and its management (5+5)
5. Discuss the therapeutical potential of stem cells in musculoskeletal disorders (10)
6. Describe the musculoskeletal manifestations in sickle cell anaemia(10)
7. Describe the clinical features, laboratory findings and management of gout (3+3+4)
8. Describe the gait cycle .List various types of gait with diagnostic features (4+6)
9. Describe the methods used for augmentation of fracture healing (10)
10. Describe the role of Ultrasonography in musculoskeletal disorders (10)
2011 DecPAPER I1. Describe the pathology, clinical features and principles of treatment of a neuropathic joint.
2. Describe the pathophysiology of Polytrauma patient and discuss the principles of Damage
Control Orthopedics.
3. Discuss the etiopathology, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of D.V.T.
4. Describe the pathology, diagnosis and broad principles of management of ankylosing
spondylitis.
5. Discuss the pathophysiology and principles of treatment of Heterotopic ossification.
6. Discuss the surgical options in the treatment of mild medial compartment osteoarthrosis of
knee in a 40 years old man.
7. a. Autonomic dysreflexia in Spinal Cord lnjury
b. Femoro-acetabular lmpingement Syndrome
8. Describe the pathology of avascular necrosis of femoral head and outline the principles of
management in Ficat 3 stage of femoral head in a 30 years old man.
9. a. Pigmented villonodular synovitis
b. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
10. a. Transient migralory osteoporosis
b. Early tendon transfer in Radial Nerve Palsy
PAPER II1. Define osteomyelitis. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of
acute osteomyelitis in a child.
2. List the causes of limp in an 8 years old child. Describe the differentiating features of septic
arthritis with transient synovitis.
3. What is Kienbock's disease? Write briefly its etiology, diagnosis, clinical staging and
management.
4. Describe "JAIPUR FOOT". Discuss the difference with 'SACH FOOT'& -MADRAS FOOT"?
5. a. SOMI brace
b. lnterferential Therapy (lFT)
6. Define ulnar claw hand. Discuss the tendon transfer for ulnar claw hand following ulnar nerve
injury.
7. a. Radial Club Hand
b. Congenital Vertical Talus
8. Describe the flexor zones of hand. Discuss the principles of acute tendon repair (zone-wise).
9. a. Renal Rickets.
b. Salter's Osteotomy
10. a. Strength Duration Curve
b. Congenital Torticollis
PAPER III1. Classify distal radius fractures. Describe radiological indices of wrist. Discuss the treatment
principles of extra-articular distal radius fractures.
2. Classify infected nonunion. Discuss the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia.
3. Discuss the diagnosis and management of Anterior cruciate Ligament (ACL) lnjury.
4. Discuss the differences between :-
a. Machine screw and ASIF screw
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b. DCP, LCDCP, Locking plate
c. Static compression and Dynamic compression
5. Classify proximal tibial fractures. Outline the management of type lV, V, and Vl fractures.
6. a. Fracture head of femur
b. Classification of Calcaneal fracture
7. Discuss the management of osteoporotic spinal fractures.
8. Describe the blood supply of talus. classify "Talar neck fractures". Discuss treatment and list
complications.
9. Describe the structure of physis. Classify physeal injury. Outline the treatment of physeal
injury and enumerate the compiications.
10. Define and classify Montegia fracture dislocation. Discuss the treatment principles of
neglected Montegia fracture dislocation in a 10 years old child.
PAPER IV1. Describe the extensor mechanism of knee and the factors that predispose to recurrent
dislocation of patella.
2. Draw a cross section of peripheral nerve and label the structures. Describe Sunderland's
classification of nerve injury.
3. a. Plaster Cast Syndrome
b. Bone morphogenic protein
4. Describe Stress, Strain, and Young's Modulus of Elasticity in relation to Orthopedic implants.
5. Describe 'free vascularized bone transplant. Discuss the principles of technique and
applications in Orthopaedic practice.
6. Discuss the role of parathyroid glands in calcium metabolism.
7. Discuss the principles of application of Functional Cast Bracing in ' the management of
diaphyseal fractures of long bones.
8. Discuss ceramics as bearing surface in Total Hip Arthroplasty.
9. a. Biodegradable lmplants
b. Principles and applications of lnterlocking Nailing
10. a. Unicameral Bone Cyst
b. Parosteal Osteosarcoma
2011 JunePAPER – I1. Describe wound balistics. Discuss briefly the management of gun shot wounds.
2. Describe the features of necrotizing fascitis & its management
3. Describe the clinical features, diagnosis & management of fail chest.
4. Descibe the clinical features, investigations & treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome.
5. Classify the lesions of diabetic foot. Outline the management.
6. Define & classify Osteoporosis. Discuss in brief its clinical features .diagnosis & management.
7. Enumerate various spinal cord syndromes. Describe salient features of each syndrome.
8. Discuss the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis & management of multiple myeloma.
9. a) Describe the causes of radial nerve palsy & its presentation
b) Discuss its management.
10. Write short notes on:-
a) Synovial fluid analysis
b) Patho – anatomy of recurrent dislocation of shoulder.
PAPER – II
Write short notes on:
1. a) Anatomy of FDS and FDP in hand
b) Tendon repair techniques and important suture configurations.
c) Management of acute zone II flexor tendon injuries.
2. Describe the pathoanatomy of clubfoot. Discuss briefly the principles of Ponseti technique.
3. Clinical, pathological and radiological features, staging and management of Ewing’s sarcoma.
4. Define Carpal Tunnel syndrome. Describe its anatomy, causes and management
5. a) Prognostic factors in Legg Calve Perthes disease
b) Pavlik Harness
6. a) What is an isotonic contraction?
b) Classify isotonic muscle contraction
c) Give an example of concentric and eccentric muscle contraction in gait cycle.
7. a) what is short wave diathermy?
b) How is it different from Microwave Diathermy?
c) Indications and contraindications of short wave & microwave diathermy.
8. Explain in brief about crutch walking patterns of gait in crutch walking and their importance.
9. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of renal rickets
10. a) Principles of amputation in lower limbs in children.
b) Floor reaction orthosis.
PAPER III1. Describe mechanism of injuries and classify “Pilon fractures” outline management options.
2. Classify Periprosthetic fractures of femur following arthroplasty and describe treatment
options.
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3. Classify pediatric hip fractures (proximal femur). Describe current treatment options and
enumerate the complications.
4. Classify fractures of distal end femur discuss the principles of their management.
5. Classify posterior fracture dislocation of with femoral head fracture and describe the
management.
6. Describe the mechanis, of injury of unhappy tirad of O’Donoghue. Briefly describe the
current management of chronic Ach insufficiency in young athletic adult.
7. Describe the mechanism of injury. Classify and treatment of Hangman’s fracture.
8. Classify acromic-clavicular joint injuries and describe their management
9. Discuss advanced trauma life support.(ATLS)
10. a)Role of mesenchyme stem cell in fracture healing
b) Stress fracture of neck femur.
PAPER IV1. Describe Briefly the approach to the hip. Mention the advantages & disadvantages of each
approach.
2. Describe the principles of MRI scan. Enumerate the applications of MRI in Orthopedics.
3. Describe various types of cartilage. Discuss their physiology & ultrastructural characteristics.
4. Describe calcium metabolism. Discuss clinical features & management of Osteomalacia.
5. Describe fractures healing. Enumerate the factors affecting fracture healing.
6. Describe various clinical teats for evaluation of ligamentous injuries of knee.
7. Describe bone graft substitutes, their incorporation & possible side effects.
8. Describe in brief about HIV infection, its diagnosis. Orthopedic implications & guidelines to
prevent its spread during surgery.
9. a) Role of Polyethelene in Orthopedics
b) Biodegradable implants
10. a) Role of fibrin gel in Orthopedics
b) Chondrocyte culture
2011 DecPaper I1. Define neuropathic joint. List the causes of neuropathic joint. Mention in brief the clinical
features, diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic joint.
2. Define gout. Describe in brief its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment ?
3. Describe the broad principles of tendon transfer. Enumerate the tendon transfer for high
radial nerve palsy.
4. Discuss the indications of surgery in TB spine with or without neurological complications.
5. Draw a labeled diagram of brachial plexus. Classify brachial plexus injury. Describe the clinical
features and management of lower brachial plexus injury.
6. Describe various types of lumbar root anomalies. List the complications of lumbar disc
surgery.
7. Define "Fat Embolism Syndrome". Describe in brief the clinical features, diagnosis and
management of "Fat Embolism Syndrome".
8. Define Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) of bone. Describe in brief clinical features, diagnosis and
management principles of GCT of upper end of tibia.
9. Describe aetiopathogenesis of avascular necrosis of hip. Classify avascular necrosis of hip.
Comment on broad principles of its management.
10. Define ochronotic arthropathy. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and management.
Paper II1. Define congenital muscular torticollis. List the differential diagnosis and outline the
management of congenital muscular torticollis.
2. Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Describe the clinical features, diagnosis and
management of nonunion of scaphoid.
3. Define ulnar claw hand. Enumerate the causes of ulnar claw hand. Discuss its management.
4. Describe Dupuytren disease and its characteristic f,eatures. Describe in brief its pathogenesis
prognosis and management.
5. Describe the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis. Describe in brief the Patho-anatomy
and treatment of “Boutonneire deformity”.
6. Define pseudoarthrosis of tibia. Describe its pathogenesis, diagnosis, classification and
management
7. Define Legg Calves Perthes disease. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and management
8. Classify physeal injuries. Describe the management and complications of various types of
physeal injuries.
9. List the causes of limp in a child.
10. Describe the Pathology and radiological signs in rickets and scurvy.
Paper IIII. Classify proximal humerus fracture. Discuss the management options for various types.
Outline the management for type IV fracture in elderly females.
2. Describe pitfalls in using the Locking Compression Plate.
3. Classify open fractures of tibia. Describe the management of type 3 b open fracture of tibia.
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4. Describe briefly the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis,investigations and treatment of
painful elbow following injury around elbow.
5. Describe classification of Monteggia fracture dislocation and its management.
6. Define nonunion. Describe the classification and broad principles of management of
diaphyseal nonunion.
7. Define Tension Band principle. Describe the use of Tension Band principle in fracture surgery.
8. Define external fixation. Classify the external fixators. Describe the advantages and
disadvantages of external fixation.
9. Classify thoracolumbar spine injuries. Give radiological classification of burst fracture. Outline
the management of burst fracture of LI vertebra.
10. Describe various methods of treatment of distal radius fracture with their principles.
Paper IV1. Describe different types of bone grafts along with their properties.
2. Describe the phases of normal gait and the types of muscle contractions in gait cycle.
3. Write short note on Nuclear medicine and its applications in Orthopedics.
4. What is flap reconstruction? Write its classification.
5. What are the types of epiphysis? Describe the types, various methods and indications of
epiphysiodesis.
6. Write short note on Coxa Vara.
7. Describe pathogenesis of acute compartment syndrome and its diagnosis.
8. Name biomaterials used in orthopedics. Describe in brief their features.
9. Describe nerve injuries, Sunderland Classification, outcome expected and basis of repair.
10. Describe the various foot and ankle deformities in cerebral palsy and their management.
2010 JunePaper I1. Acute compartment syndrome
2. Gene therapy in orthopaedics
3. Vitamin D resistant rickets
4. Advances in medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
5. Management of multiple rib fractures with haemothorax
6. Differentiating features of head injury from cerebral symptoms of fat embolism syndrome
7. Haemophilic arthropathy
8. PET scan in orthopaedics practice
9. Automatic bladder
10. Electrodiagnostic studies
Paper II1. Salter Harris classification of epiphyseal injuries and it’s relevance to skeletal growth.
2. Principles of management of radial nerve injury
3. Ponseti method of CTEV management
4. Salter’s osteotomy
5. Floor reaction orthosis
6. Klippel Feil syndrome
7. Claw hand
8. Tom Smith arthritis
9. Principle of amputation of lower limbs in children
10. Patho-anatomy and management of congenital vertical talus
Paper III1. Principles, merits & demerits of locking plates
2. Damage control orthopaedics
3. Describe the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of acute spinal cord injury
4. Classify distal radius fractures. What are the recent trends in their management?
5. Methods for reducing risks of blood transfusion
6. Evaluation and principles of management of fracture acetabulum
7. Classify peri-prosthetic fractures following THR. Outline theis management strategies.
8. Shoulder instability
9. Distraction histiogenesis
10. Classify fracture calcaneum and describe their management.
Paper IV1. Biological enhancement of fracture healing
2. High tibial osteotomy
3. Concepts of total knee replacement
4. Recent advances in bearing surfaces of total hip arthroplasty
5. DVT prophylaxis
6. Management of metastasis in spine
7. Describe blood supply of long bones and effects of various modalities of fixation on this
8. Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome
9. Management of congenital scoliosis
10. Enumerate various diagnostic tests with their relative merit for postoperative infection.
Outline the treatment of post-operative infection after internal fixation
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2009 DecPaper I1. Post-operative pain management. Describe patient control analgesia.
2. Clinical features and management of stove in chest.
3. Indications of Limb salvage surgery in malignant bone tumors. Describe the techniques of
limb salvage in osteosarcoma.
4. Uses of botulinum neurotoxin in Orthopaedic surgery.
5. Define pigmented villonodular synovitis. Describe pathology, clinical features, diagnosis & its
treatment.
6. Give a functional classification of muscles around the shoulder. Enumerate the indications for
shoulder arthrodesis. What are the pre-requisites for a good result? Describe any one
technique of shoulder arthrodesis.
7. Describe pathophysiology of nerve compression (entrapment) syndromes. Enumerate
various syndromes of nerve entrapment. Give an outline of the management of Tarsal Tunnel
Syndrome.
8. What is traumatic arthrotomy of the knee joint? What is fluid challenge test to confirm the
diagnosis in doubtful cases? Outline the principles of management.
9. What are the various causes of late onset paraplegia in tuberculosis of spine? Describe the
investigative modalities and outline the principles of management.
10. Describe the management of unicompartmental osteoarthrosis knee.
Paper II1. Management of septic arthritis in children,
2. Pathophysiology, types and clinical features of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
3. Prognostic factors and outcome in the treatment of Perthe’s disease
4. Describe Madelung deformity, classification, clinical features and management of madelung's
deformity
5. Classify congenital dislocation of knee. Comment on differential diagnosis and management
6. Draw a diagram of Floor Reaction Orthosis, What is a good indication for its use. Describe
mechanism of action
7. Orthopaedic manifestation of neurofibromatosis
8. Describe muscular dynamics in calcaneovalgus deformity. Describe management in patients
before and after attaining skeletal maturity
9. Classification of neurogenic bladder and management
10. What are closed chain and open chain exercises and discuss ACL rehabilitation protocol
Paper III1. Classification, management and complication of fractures of the femoral head and neck in
children
2. What are Monteggia equivalents, discuss the principles of management of Monteggia
fracture dislocation in children
3. Principles of management of a pulseless hand after supracondylar fractures in children
4. Role of ultrasound in fracture healing
5. Subacromial impingement syndrome
6. Describe indications for amputation, Principles of lower limb amputation in children
7. What is Mangled Extremity severity score(MESS), describe principles of flap coverage in
proximal one third of tibia
8. Classify ankle fractures, which pattern has syndesmotic instability, what is their
management?
9. What are biodegradable implants, what is their chemical composition? Mention the
indications of their use, advantage and disadvantage of their use
10. What is central cord syndrome, describe its clinical presentation. How will you manage such
a case?
Paper IV1. Osteochondral allograft transplantation. Mention indications for the procedure
2. Role of Pamidronate in bone metastasis
3. What do you understand by patellar instability, describe the principles of management,
before and after skeletal maturity?
4. Enumerate modalities leading to biological enhancement of fracture healing. Mention the
methods of preservation of allogenic bone grafts. Comment on mode of action, advantages and
disadvantages
5. Describe the pathogenesis of hallux valgus deformity; describe the role of metatarsus
primary varus in the pathogenesis. How will you manage an adolescent girl with severe hallux
valgus?
6. Describe various types of rickets; describe biochemical changes and clinical presentation of
various types of rickets!
7. Define osteoporosis. Comment on types, causes and management
8. What is highly cross linked polyethylene? How is it manufactured? How has it affected
modern total hip arthroplasty?
9. Anatomy of Lisfranc joint, and management of injuries around the joint
10. Describe gate control theory of pain. What is transcutaneous nerve stimulation and
its indications?
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2009 JunePaper I1. Briefly describe the stages of fracture healing. Discuss physical or chemical modalities to
enhance fracture healing.
2. Discuss prophylaxis against secondary complications of patient with polytrauma.
3. Ganz antishock pelvic fixator.
4. Describe musculoskeletal manifestations of HIV infected patients.
5. Describe pathogenesis of medial compartment osteoarthrosis. Discuss pros & cons of HTO vs
unicondylar replacement.
6. Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.
7. Osteofibrous Dysplasia
8. Enumerate indications & various techniques for shoulder arthrodesis. What are the
prerequisites for a good result?
9. What is malalignment test? Discuss principles of focal dome osteotomy.
10. Gene therapy in Orthopedics.
Paper II1. Enumerate the causes of intoeing gait. How will you treat intoeing gait because of hip
disorders.
2. What is congenital coxa vara? Describe its pathophysiology and outline principles of
management.
3. Ober’s test.
4. Briefly discuss the clinical features and pathology of Ewing’s Sarcoma. Outline the principles
of treatment in a case of Ewing’s Sarcoma of upper end of humerus.
5. How will you evaluate a child with genu valgum deformity? Outline the principles of
management. What is timed epiphysiodesis?
6. Thermoplastic splints
7. Classify nerve injuries. What is the role of electrodiagnosis in differentiating various nerve
lesions?
8. Discuss the principles of rehabilitation of a paraplegic patient.
9. Briefly describe the principles & steps of Ponsetti’s method of CTEV correction.
10. Enumerate various causes of claw hand. What is the pathogenesis of clawing? Discuss the
principles of surgical correction.
Paper III1. Classify fractures of calcaneum. Outline the principles of management.
2. Elaborate the principles of LCP. What are the applications in periarticular fractures?
3. Classify epiphyseal injuries. Describe the complications. What is Langenskiold’s procedure?
4. Current concepts in the management of fracture neck & head of radius in children and
adults.
5. Classify flexor tendon injuries of the hand. Describe the treatment of neglected ruptures of
flexor tendons in Zone II.
6. Outline the principles of management in a case of infected non union of a long bone. How
will you treat infected non union of tibia?
7. Classify fractures of the acetabulum. Discuss radiographic evaluation of acetabular trauma.
8. How will you manage a case of knee dislocation with absent distal pulsations?
9. Describe instability patterns after wrist trauma. Discuss the management of VISI (Volar
Intercalated Segment Instability)
10. How will you differentiate between the cerebral sign as a result of head injury vs fat
embolism syndrome? Describe in brief management of fat embolism syndrome.
Paper IV1. Autologous Transfusion.
2. Describe the anatomy of Distal Radio Ulnar Joint. Describe indications & technique of
performing Kapandji’s procedure.
3. Sexual Dimorphism in orthopedic practice.
4. Brown Tumor.
5. Surgical Dislocation of Hip.
6. Describe anatomical classification of chronic osteomyelitis. Discuss the principles of
management based on this classification. How will you fill the dead space after excision of
infected tissue?
7. Describe the presentation of tourniquet palsy and its causes. What precautions are taken to
prevent it?
8. Describe the anatomy of PCL. Discuss its significance in Total Knee Arthroplasty.
9. Describe the basic principle of PET scan and discuss its role in orthopedics.
10. What is pelvic support osteotomy? Outline its principles and operative technique.
2008 DecPaper I1. Discuss Anatomy of rotator cuff. What is rotator cuff disease? Discuss its pathogenesis and
management.
2. Define and classify Rickets. Describe pathogenesis, clinical features and management of
hypophosphatemic rickets.
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3. What are Biochemical markers for bone formation and bone resorption. Discuss their role in
management of osteoporosis.
4. Discuss causes of loosening after a total hip replacement. Discuss its clinical features,
diagnosis and management.
5. Discuss various methods available for treatment of Giant cell tumor of proximal tibia in a 30
yr. old man.
6. What is claudication? Classify it and discuss its cause specific management.
7. Discuss the etiology, Pathology , diagnosis, and management of Gas Gangrene of the Lower
Extremity.
8. Discuss approach to find out a primary tumor in a 65 yr. old man presenting with vertebral
metastasis and low backache.
9. Discuss differential diagnosis in a 25 yr. old male presenting with mono-articular arthritis of
knee joint. Tabulate the management in an algorithmic manner.
10. What is Marfan’s syndrome? What is its orthopaedic management?\
Paper II1) Classify elbow dislocation. How will you manage an unreduced posterior dislocation elbow in
10 yr. old child?
2) Define and classify cerebral palsy. Describe crouched gait and its management in a 10 yr. old
child.
3) Describe various systems, implants available for limb length equalization. Discuss their
underlying principle.
4) Give one example each of concentric and eccentric contraction during gait cycle. How will
paralysis of tibialis anterior affect normal gait.
5) Describe Salter’s osteotomy. What are its indications, merits and demerits.
6) What is thoracic outlet syndrome? Discuss its Anatomy . How will you diagnose it in OPD?
7) Discuss sexual and bladder rehabilitation of a 30 yr. old male following a complete spinal
injury at D12 vertebral level. Discuss indications, merits and demerits of talectomy.
9) Discuss orthotic management in a High Radial Nerve Palsy.
10) Discuss various functions of hand. How will you attain key pinch in a quadriplegic with no
useful power?
Paper III1) What is Polytrauma? Describe the scoring method & principles of management of a patient
with polytrauma in accident & emergency department.
2) Describe clinical features, diagnostic criteria and treatment of fat embolism syndrome.
3) What is floating knee? Discuss its management in a 25 yr. old adult.
4) Describe various clinical methods to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament injury. Describe post
operative management of ACL reconstruction by a bone patellar tendon bone graft.
5) Discuss the principles of management of Non-Union fracture Neck of Femur in an adult.
6) What is a Toddler’s fracture? Discuss its differential diagnosis and management.
7) How will you transport an organ after amputation to a sterilized centre for re-implantation?
What is the order of implantation in a below elbow amputation?
8) Classify peri prosthetic fracture following a total hip replacement. Discuss their management.
9) Discuss the principles and the biomechanics of intra-medullary nailing.
10) Classify Pilon fractures and discuss their management.
Paper IV1) What is multi system organ failure? What are indicators of mortality? Write briefly about
diagnosis and management.
2) Define and classify VIC. Describe its surgical and orthotic management in Grade II VIC of
forearm.
3) Describe arches of foot. Classify Flat Foot & briefly discuss the management principles of flat
feet in a child.
4) What are the anatomical & physiological differences between neck shaft angle and version in
a child and adult?
5) Discuss principle of chondroplasty in osteoarthritis of knee joint.
6) Define multidirectional instability of shoulder joint. Discuss its management.
7) Discuss the role of injectable steroids following spinal injury. Discuss various methods of
preventing deep vein thrombosis following total knee replacement. Discuss their merits &
demerits.
9) What are indications of arthrography in a hip? Discuss various approaches to aspirate the hip
joint.
10) What is the indication & principle behind parathormone therapy for treatment of
osteoporosis? What are its merits & demerits?
2008 JunePaper I1) Femoro acetabular impingement syndrome.
2) Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. Diagnosis and management.
3) Management of Brachial artery injury in association with supracondylar fracture of humerus.
4) Differentiating features between Osteonecrosis and transient migratory osteoporosis.
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5) Discuss the diagnosis and clinical features of DVT in orthopedic surgery. Outline the
management. What special precautions are required if post-operative epidural analgesia is used
for 4–5 days.
6) Discuss the approach to a patient with suspected bony metastasis with unknown primary
tumor.
7) Enumerate the radiological types of Tuberculosis Hip. How does this classification help us in
prognostication?
8) Discuss the approach to a patient of pelvic fracture with a suspected abdominal injury.
9) Enumerate various methods of ACL Reconstruction. Discuss the pros & cons of each method.
10) Bone defects encountered during total knee replacement and their management.
Paper II1) Discuss the types of equines contracture in cerebral palsy and its management.
2) Describe the Anatomy of iliotibial band and the effect of its contracture on the lower limb.
How do you clinically detect the contracture?
3) Renal Osteodystrophy
4) Scheurmans disease.
5) Pathophysiology of claw hand and its treatment.
6) Discuss the management of flexor tendon injury in zone II.
7) Describe the orthotic management of an asensate foot particularly in reference to leprosy.
8) What are the various types of exercises? Discuss the benefits and indications of isometric
exercises.
9) What is paraffin wax? How is it useful in treatment of orthopedic conditions? What are the
indications and contraindications of wax bath therapy?
10)Define ankle foot orthosis. What are the plastic materials used in fabrication. Describe
indications and care during daily use.
Paper III1) Describe the causes of ulnar wrist pain after healing of a distal radial fracture and discuss the
management.
2) Damage control orthopaedics .
3) Classify fractures of acetabulum and role of conventional radiology in the classification
4) Classify ankle injuries. Which fracture patterns have syndesmotic instability & how do you
manage it?
5) Classify fractures of the proximal humerus. What is the relevance of blood supply of humerus
in planning management? How will you treat four part fractures?
6) Discuss the advances in the management of periarticular fractures.
7) Describe the mechanism of injury & clinical presentation of various incomplete spinal cord
syndromes.
8)Differentiating features in the patho Anatomy & management of intracapsular fracture neck
of femur in children & adults.
9) Advances in treatment of osteoporotic fractures.
10)Discuss the clinical features & management of Achilles tendinopathy in athletes.
Paper IV1) Biological therapy in inflammatory arthritis.
2) Trochanteric flip osteotomy in surgical exposures of the hip joint.
3) Rationale for using metallic implants in osteoarticular tuberculosis.
4) Clinical differentiation between pre-ganglionic and postganglionic lesions of brachial plexus
& its effect on the management.
5) Transcutaneous nerve stimulation.
6) Define femoral anteversion. How do you detect it clinically? Discuss the role of anteversion in
orthopaedics diagnosis & management
7) Pathophysiology of lumbar canal stenosis.
8)What are bisphosphonates? Discuss the role of Bisphosphonates in various orthopedic
disorders.
9) Describe the blood supply of a long bone. Discuss the effects of various modalities of internal
fixation on the blood supply.
10)Biodegradable orthopedic implants.
2007 DecPaper I1. Management of multiple rib fracture with Haemopneumothorax
2. Filum terminale syndrome
3. Management of skeletal metastasis
4. Round cell tumour. Discuss the management of multiple myeloma
5. Osteoporosis
6. Management of fat embolism
7. Exertional compartment syndrome
8. Management of haemarthrosis of knee developing in an injury
9. Role of labeled WBC and multiphasic bone scan in bone Pathology
10. Tuberculosis of hip joint
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Paper II1. Etiology and pathological Anatomy of DDH
2. Mid carpal instability
3. Surgical principles of flexor tendon repair
4. Klippel feil syndrome
5. Indications of amputation. Describe surgical principles of amputation in children and adults
6. Pes planus
7. Role and mode of action of pharmacological treatment in CP
8. Calcaneovalgus
deformity. Disscuss the treatment issues in mature and immature foot
9. Madelung deformity
10. Shoulder instability
Paper III1. Indications of Valgus osteotomy for fracture neck of femur. Discuss the preoperative
planning, Implant choice, advantages and disadvantages of the procedure
2. guiding principles of removal of orthopaedic implants after fracture union. What are the
current recommendations for removal of implant in commonly encountered fractures
3. classify Periprosthetic fractures around the knee. Outline the treatment strategy
4. Classify fractures of the Capitullumn and discuss the management of each type
5. Surgical Anatomy of AC joint along with classification of AC joint injuries. Briefly discuss the
management.
6. What are the various protocols which have been used for pharmacological intervention in
spinal cord injuries.what is the current opinion on pharmacological intervention
7. Classify fractures of pelvis briefly discuss the management of rotationally unstable and
vertically stable injuries
8. Various methods of fixing severely osteoporotic fractures.
9. What is LISS. Discuss its role in stabilizing fractures of distal femur.
10. What is ballistics. Briefly describe the current management of ballistic injuries of the spine.
Paper IV1. Biological enhancement of fracture healing
2. Bearing surface of total hip arthroplasty
3. Causes and treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome
4. What are the musculo skeletal manifestations of retroviral infection
5. High tibial osteotomy
6. Discuss the pharmacological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
7. Structure and function of articular cartilage
8. Sickle cell disease
9. Classify Spondylolisthesis. Describe the management
10. Renal Rickets.
2007 JunePaper I1. DIC
2. Enumerate bleeding disorders . How will you manage a grossly arthritic Knee in haemophilia?
3. Tension Pneumothorax
4. Decribe the various myocutaneous flaps used to cover tibia in different levels.
5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumours
6. Pathogenesis of lumbar canal stenosis? What is the differentiating feature between vascular
& neurogenic claudication
7. Briefly discuss the principles and priorities in managing polytrauma
8. Loose bodies in knee – etiology? How will u manage a case of 30 year old sportsmanwho
presents with locked knee due to loose body
9. How will u differentiate structural scoliosis from nonstructural scoliosis? Describe infantile
idiopathic scoliosis. What is the importance of rib vertebral angle?
10. How will u manage a case of recalcitrant tennis elbow?
Paper II1. Classify radial club hand. Describe the pathological Anatomy & management of a 1 yr old
child?
2. Classify Coxa Vara. Describe the management of adolescent coax vara
3. Describe the DD of cystic lesion in upper end of humerus in a 10 year old child. Describe the
management of SBC in same child
4. Classify fracture neck of femur in children. Describe its management and complications
briefly
5. Define Gait. Describe the aetiopathogenesis and causes of trendlenberg gait
6. what is symes amputation? Desribe the indications and complications. What is the prosthesis
suitable for symes amputation?
7. Describe briefly the clinical features and management of SCFE?
8. Neurological deficit in caries spine; types, pathogenesis and prognostic factors?
9. A one year old child has been successfully treated for CTEV. Describe the orthotic
management from this time to the completion of treatment?
10. Describe the pathological Anatomy of the bursae of the hand. Discuss the etiology, clinical
feature and management of acute infection in those bursae?
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Paper III1. Peritalar dislocation
2. Chronic compartment syndrome
3. Hanging cast
4. What is unstable trochanteric fracture? Briefly describe the various methods of managing
unstable trochanteric fracture
5. Discuss the indications pros and cons of reamed Vs undreamed intramedullary nailing
6. Discuss the management of closed fracture shaft of humerus with radial nerve palsy
7. Carpal instability – types, clinical features and radiological assessment
8. Describe the Anatomy of Subacromial space. What is the morphology of acromion process in
the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears? How will you manage full thickness tear?
9. what is locked compression plate? Discuss the principles, clinical situations where it is
particularly usefull
10. how will you manage a case of acute Hemarthrosis Knee?
Paper IV1. Describe Bone remodeling unit. Briefly describe the drugs which influence remodeling
2. PET Scan
3. Wallerian degeneration
4. Briefly describe the relevant biomechanics of the lower limb,particularly in relation to bone
cuts in total knee replacement
5. Gate control theory of pain
6. What is neuropraxia? How will you differentiate it from axonometsis during first few days of
injury
7. Tribology
8. Tumour induced osteomalacia
9. Describe the histological zones of growth plate. Discuss the anatomical changes which takes
place in rickets and Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
10. Discuss the pathogenesis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. How does it differ in
different age groups
2006 DecPaper I1) Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation
2) Features which differentiate head injury from the cerebral symptoms of Fat Embolism
syndrome.
3) Synovioma
4) Otto Pelvis
5) Principles of surface replacement arthroplasty of hip. What do you think are the reasons of
failure of previous historical designs compared to the modern successful design?
6) What are the various methods of closing gaps between nerve ends during nerve repair?
7) What are the indications of spinal osteotomy in ankylosing spondylitis? Describe the various
techniques. Pathophysiology of septic shock.
9) Management of a patient having fracture pelvis with urinary retention. Restrict yourself to
the management of his urinary problem.
10)Kienbock’s disease.
Paper II1) Name the prehensile movements of hand. What are the tendon transfers described for
opponens deficit hand?
2) Describe briefly indications, contraindications and principle technical steps of Salter’s
osteotomy.
3) How do principles of amputation differ in children as compared to adults? What is pylon
prosthesis? What are advantages and disadvantages?
4) What is the pathological Anatomy of carpal tunnel? Describe briefly the diagnosis and
management of carpal tunnel syndrome.
5) What are the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis? Describe the pathological Anatomy
and treatment of Boutannaire’s deformity.
6) Describe briefly the aetiology, clinical features and principles of treatment of Tom Smith
arthritis.
7) Outline the calcium metabolism. What do you mean by Vitamin D resistant rickets? Describe
its clinical features and management.
8)What is crutch palsy? Describe the orthotic management of wrist drop.
9) Describe the pathological Anatomy, clinical features and management of post polio
calcaneus deformity in a 12 yr. old patient.
10)What is Floor Reaction Orthosis? Describe its parts and mechanism of function. What are its
indications and contraindications?
Paper III1) Describe the mechanism of injury and clinical presentation of various incomplete spinal cord
syndromes.
2) What is Lisfranc joint? Classify injuries around this joint and principles of management.
3) Classify calcaneal fractures. Discuss the management based on classification system.
Enumerate the complications.
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4) Enumerate Biodegradable implants. What are the advantages and disadvantages of their
use?
5) Classify periprosthetic fractures around the knee and discuss their management.
6) Classify fracture acetabulum and outline the indications of surgical treatment.
7) Classify ankle injuries. Which fracture patterns have syndesmotic instability and how do you
manage that?
Classify fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly. What is the relevance of blood supply of
the humeral head in planning management? How will you treat four part fracture?
9) What is Gas Gangrene? Discuss the clinical features, bacteriology and principles of
management.
10) Describe the causes of ulnar wrist pain after healing of distal radius fractures. Discuss the
management of DRUJ disorders.
Paper IV1) Describe the Physiology of micturition. Briefly discuss the management of automatic bladder
in spinal injuries.
2) Describe the arches of foot. Discuss the clinical features and management of peroneospastic
flat foot.
3) Describe the blood supply of femoral head. How does it differ in children and adults?
4) Describe the properties of synovial fluids. How does it help in differentiating various types of
arthritis?
5) What are the stages of fracture healing? Discuss the factors regulating fracture healing.
6) What are bone graft substitutes? How do they work?
7) Describe the metabolism of Vitamin D and its clinical significance. What are Giant cell
variants? Describe in brief their differential diagnosis.
9) What is DOTS? What is its rationale?
10)Pathoanatomy, radiology and diagnosis of Congenital vertical Talus.
2006 JunePaper I1) Discuss the Pathology of osteoarthritis of knee with special reference to the role of ACL
rupture in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis knee.
2) Briefly describe the clinical features, types and management of osteoid osteoma.
3) Describe in detail the synovial fluid analysis. How do you differentiate various types of
arthritides based on the analysis?
4) Video Assisted Thoracoscopy
5) Osteochondritis Dessicans
6) Transient Migratory Osteoporosis of the hips
7) Describe various types of skin grafts. Discuss the stages of biological incorporation of skin
grafts.
8)Discuss the pathogenesis of neurospinal claudication.
9) Automatic Dysreflexia.
10)Control of air quality in a modern orthopaedic operation theatre.
Paper II1) Anterior Interosseous Nerve syndrome – Aetiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis
and management.
2) Dwyer’s osteotomy for CTEV – Indications, steps and complications.
3) Sprengel’s Deformity. Etio pathogenesis, clinical features and management.
4) Coxa Plana – Clinical, Radiological features, Differential diagnosis and principles of treatment.
5) Boutannaire deformity – etiology, pathomechanics and management.
6) Ultrasonic Therapy – Physiological effects, clinical applications and contraindications.
7) Quadriceps Paralysis Gait – pathomechanics, compensation employed and corrective
measures.
8) Suction Socket Prosthesis – principles, indications and advantages over conventional
prosthesis and main points in its construction.
9) Bowing of Tibia in children – Causes, types and management of Congenital Bowing
10)Equinus Deformity in cerebral palsy – Etiopathogenesis, evaluation and treatment.
Paper III1) Fracture Talus.
2) Bennet’s Fracture dislocation
3) Hangman’s Fracture.
4) Motor March
5) Principles of Tendon Transfer.
6) Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.
7) Acromio clavicular Disruption Lateral Condyle fracture of Humerus
9) Perilunar Dislocation.
10)Fracture Disease.
Paper IV1) Etiopathogenesis, Pathology and management of DIC.
2) Congenital postural deformities associated with in-utero position.
3) Raloxifene.
4) Biomechanics of Knee in relation to total knee replacement.
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5) Structure and Biochemistry of articular cartilage.
6) Bryant’s Traction.
7) Biochemical markers of Bone formation and resorption. Describe pathological Anatomy and
radiology in CTEV.
9) Stewart and Harnaley ankle arthrodesis.
10)Enumerate various deformities of foot and ankle seen in Post Polio Residual Paralysis (PPRP).
Describe in detail the management of Talipes Calcaneus.
2005 DecPaper I1) Define entrapment syndrome. Enumerate various entrapment syndromes. Discuss the
entrapment syndrome in relation to the ulnar nerve in detail.
2) Bony changes in hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism along with relevant
pathophysiology.
3) Sports related injuries to soft tissues.
4) Suture Materials.
5) Finger Injuries.
6) Enumerate various classical levels of lower limb amputations. Discuss AK amputation in
detail. What is the difference in energy consumption by the patient in AK amputation as
compared to a BK amputation?
7) Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
8) Intravenous Regional Anaesthesia in orthopedic practice.
9) Day Care Surgery.
10)Surgical audit.
Paper II1) Congenital vertical Talus – Etiology, Pathology , clinical, radiological features and
management.
2) Chiari Osteotomy – indications, advantages, steps of surgery.
3) Claw Hand – Etiology, patho-mechanics,principles of various corrective procedures.
4) Bowing of Tibia in children – Causes, types, clinical features & management of congenital
bowing of tibia.
5) Klippel-Fiel syndrome – Etiology, Pathology , clinical & radiological features, differential
diagnosis & management.
6) Microwave Diathermy – its physiogical effects, clinical applications & contraindications.
7) Describe various types of Crutches ; gait pattern with crutches.
8) Skew Flap Amputation – indications, advantages of conventional amputation,steps of
operation and complications.
9) Post – polio equinus deformity of foot – etiopathology, evaluation & management.
10)Floor reaction Orthosis – indications, principles and advantages.
Paper III1) Enumerate the types of spinal cord lesions following fracture dislocation of C5-6 vertebrae
and discuss clinical features, treatment and prognosis of each type of lesion in adult. 25 marks
2) Describe the following in brief 15 marks each
i) Treatment of fractures of distal end of radius.
ii) Management of fracture of fracture shaft of femur that has become infected after
intramedullary fixation
iii) Treatment of radial head and neck fractures in children
iv) Management of Trochnanteric fractures in elderly.
v) Principles of management of Lisfranc injuries of foot.
Paper IV1) Massive Transfusion.
2) Harmon’s approach of Tibia with applied Anatomy .
3) Strength – Duration Curve.
4) Biomechanics of hip joint and its clinical applications.
5) Radionuclide bone scanning
6) Allopurinol
7) Tension band principle and its application in treatment of fractures using a wire and plate.
8) Pathology of tuberculous arthritis and correlation with clinical staging.
9) Growth plate - Anatomy and pathological states affecting it.
10) Radiological and biochemical features of renal osteodystrophy and their interpretation.
2005 JunePaper I
Part A
1) Draw a flow chart of disaster planning at state level. What is the concept of triage?
2) Pathology , clinical features and management of diabetic foot.
3) Nosocomial infection on orthopaedics – common organism and preventive measures.
4) Post operative DVT – Prevention, clinical features and treatment.
5) Post Menopausal Osteoporosis – Prevention and management.
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www.orthodnb.com 26

Part B1) Crystal Synovitis.
2) Incoporation of Bone Grafts. How does it differ for cancellous and cortical grafts?
3) Preparation and precautions required to operate HIV positive patients.
4) Chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.
5) How does a neurological claudication differ from vascular claudication? Enumerate the
etiology of the two.
Paper II
Part A
1) Clinical features and management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
2) Ewing’s Sarcoma
3) Pollicisation – Indications and prerequisites
4) What are parts of a shoe? Describe the modifications of a CTEV shoe.
5) What is modified Jone’s transfer for a high radial nerve palsy? How does it differ from
original transfer?
Part B1) Pylon prosthesis – Indications, prerequisites and advantages.
2) Botulin in cerebral palsy patients.
3) PTB prosthesis – Indications and principles.
4) Radial club hand.
5) Salter osteotomy for DDH.
Paper – III1) Describe the biology of fracture healing and the influence of intramedullary rods and plates
in healing. Discuss the role of various modalities in stimulation of osteogenesis (25 marks)
2) Describe in brief on the following (15 marks each)
i) Treatment of odontoid fracture in adults.
ii) Enumerate the complications of femoral neck fractures in children and discuss the
management in any one of the complications.
iii) Classification and treatment of acromioclavicular dislocation.
iv) Stress, Strain, Modulus of elasticity and strength in relation to metallic implants.
v) Rotator cuff injury in sportsmen.
Paper IV
Part A
1) Trendelenberg test with its anatomical basis and clinical applications
2) Madura foot.
3) Synovial fluid and its analysis in various arthritis
4) Blood supply of head of femur and its clinical significance.
5) Morbid Anatomy , radiological and laboratory features of Multiple Myeloma
Part B1) Thompsons approach of radius with applied Anatomy .
2) Paralytic Bladder.
3) Methotrexae as a DMARD.
4) Therapeutic ultrasound.
5) Prophylaxis in thrombo-embolic disease.
2004 DecPaper I1) Describe etiopathogenesis of thoracic outlet syndrome and its management
2) Short notes on
i) Shock
ii) Haemophiliac arthropathy
iii) Compartment syndrome
iv) Ehler-Danlos syndrome
v) Acute rupture of Achilles Tendon
Paper II1) Discuss etiology, pathogenesis and management of Perthe’s disease.
2) Write short notes on
i) Principles of amputation of lower limb in children
ii) Dupuytren’s contracture
iii) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
iv) Nuclear Imaging.
v) F.R.O.
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Paper III1) Classify pelvic fractures and discuss the management.
2) Write short notes on
i) Fracture Talus
ii) Calcaneovalgus Deformity
iii) Myositis Ossificans
iv) Biomechanics of Hip
v) Habitual Dislocation of Patella
Paper IV1) Describe calcium metabolism. Discuss the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and
management of nutritional rickets.
2) Write short notes on
i) Arches of foot
ii) Core decompression
iii) Bone graft substitutes
iv) Pathology of osteoarthritis
v) Sudeck’s osteodystrophy
2004 JunePaper I1) Osteoporosis – Definition, Etiology, Clinical features, Investigations, Prevention and
Treatment.
2) Short notes on
i) Surgery for habitual dislocation of patella
ii) Triple arthrodesis for equinus
iii) Shoe modification for valgoid tilt
iv) Fascio-cutaneous skin graft
v) Ideal stump
Paper II1) Discuss the merits & demerits of operative & non-operative treatment of simple diaphyseal
fracture of tibia.
2) Short notes on
i) Bristow’s procedure
ii) Classification of Distal Radius fracture
iii) Classification of Rotatory knee instability
iv) Management of Pelvic fractures
v) Old metacarpo phalangeal dislocation
Paper III1) Discuss mechanism & classification of injury around ankle joint. Discuss diagnosis and
treatment.
2) Short notes on
i) Discuss Pathology & management of infected non-union.
ii) Fracture Neck of Femur – Classification and treatment
iii) Compression & Distraction in Orthopaedics
iv) Role of Ligamentotaxis in fractures
v) Tension band wiring principle.
Paper IV1) Describe bone tumour. Classification, diagnosis and treatment modalities for Multiple
Myeloma.
2) Short notes on
i) Bone Cement
ii) Intrinsic Hand
iii) Shoulder Hand Syndrome
iv) Gait Cycle
v) Osteoclast.
2003 DecPaper I1) Define Gangrene. Describe the aetiological classification & Mx of gas gangerene?
2) Short Notes on :
i) Skin grafting
ii) Madura foot
iii) Mortons metatarsalgia
iv) DVT
v) Ewings tumour
Paper II1. Management of ankle fractures in children
2. Pathophysiology & presentation of TB spine in children
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3. Juvenile Chronic arthritis - DD & investigations
4. Osteochondritis dessicans
5. Congenital amputations of lower limb in children
6. Haemophilia knee
7. Compound palmar ganglia
8. Ulnar claw hand
9. Pes planus
10. Mono ostotoc fibrous dysplasia
Paper III1) Recent advances in the management of intraarticular fractures of upper end of tibia
2) Short notes on :
i) Rationale of surgical treatment of recurrent dislocation of shoulder
ii) Hangmans fracture
iii) Calcaneum fracture
iv) Orthopaedic complications of high dose steroid
v) Sudeks Osteodystrophy
Paper IV1) Describe the mechanism of calcium homeostasis by parathyroid hormone and the skeletal
changes that occur as a result of hyperparathyroidism. Discuss the uses and limitations of lab
investigations in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism
2) Short notes on :
i) BMP
ii) 2nd line of ATT
iii) Acute ankle sprain
iv) Growth plate & its functions
v) Stress, strain & modulus of elasticity in relationship to implants.
2002 DecPaper I1) Aetiology, Pathology & Mx of Spinal canal stenosis
2) Short notes on :
i) Tension pneumpthorax
ii) Non specific synovitis
iii) Painful arc syndrome
iv) metastatic lesion of bone & tis management
v) Crush Syndrome
Paper II1) Pathogenesis, Clinical features & management of Caries spine in a child 10 yrs old
2) Short notes on :
i) Intrinsic muscles hand
ii) fibrous dysplasia
iii) Habittual dislocation patella
iv) LASER Therapy
v) Amputations in children
Paper III1) Management of fracture pelvis and their complications
2) Short notes on :
i) Cerebral diplegia? Line of Management?
ii) Multiple myelpma – Investigations & Management?
iii) Pes Planus –etiology & Management?
iv) Investigations of Pain in Hand?
v) Rationale of surgical Rx for recurrent anterior dislocation shoulder?
Paper IV1) Blood supply of head of femur in diff age groups? Management of Idiopathic AVN of Femur?
2) Short notes on :
i) Osteogenesis imperfecta
ii) Cubitus Varus
iii) Renal Rickets
iv) Sudecks dystrophy
v) Neurogenic Bladder
2002 JunePaper I1) Describe the various approaches to the spine
2) Short notes on :
i) Recurrent dislocation of patella
ii) Compression plating
iii) Hallux valgus
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iv) Volkmans ischaemic contracture
v) Ewings sarcoma
Paper II1) Describe the management of claw hand
2) Short notes on :
i) CTEV
ii) Septic arthritis of hip in a child below 5 years and above 3years
iii) Epiphyseal injuries
iv) Principles of amputation in children
v) Calcaneovalgus foot
Paper III1.Treatment of ununited fracture neck of femur
2.Treatment of intercondylar fracture of humerus
3.Investigation of collapse of a vertebra
4.Osteomalacia
5.Osteogenesis imperfecta
6.Post Polio Residual Paralysis
7.Diagnostic criteria of osteolytic lesion in upper end tibia
8.Pilon fracture
9.Brodies abscess
10. Costo clavicular syndrome
Paper IV1) Describe the Anatomy of recurrent dislocation shoulder? Discuss Management
2) Short notes on :
i) Ceramics In Orthopaedics
ii) Bone grafts
iii) Hyper parathyroidism
iv) Pigmented villonodular synovitis
v) Pes planus
2001Paper I1. OA Knee – pathophysiology. Discuss rationale of surgical management of OA Knee
2. Short notes on :
i) Renal Rickets – Pathophysiology
ii) Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
iii) Hand to Knee gait in Polio
iv) Wallerian Degenration
v) Endotoxic Shock
Paper II1. Pathomechanics, Clincal features & Management of various deformities in RA – hand?
2. Short notes on :
i) Pseudoarthrosis
ii) Neglected Cong. Talipes Equino varus
iii) Electromyography
iv) Osteochondromatosis
v) Suction socket prosthesis
Paper III1.Discuss the pathological alterations of femoral neck & head in neglected & ununited femoral
neck fractures and their management?
2. Short notes on :
i) Traumatic paraplegia
ii) Fractures at the upper end of humerus
iii) Intercarpal instability
iv) Two level fracture of shaft of tibia
v) Fractures and dislocation of talus
PAPER IV1. Describe the development of vertebral column.Pathogenesis and management of potts
paraplegia. Discuss the treatment of resistant cases?
2. Short notes on :
i) Biodegradable implants
ii) Rigid flat foot
iii) Wrist drop
iv) Compartment Syndrome
v) Symes amputation
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www.orthodnb.com 30
  



Original Photos of DNB Orthopaedics Theory papers

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CLICK HERE   for April 2016, Dec 2015 and all original photos of papers


DNB Orthopaedics Theory 2015 December
DNB Orthopaedics Paper
WRITE SHORT NOTES ON:
1. a)Classify osteoporosis
   b) Clinical presentation and management of senile osteoporosis.
2. a)Indications and complications of amputations.
    b) Early management of closed above knee amputation
3. a)Anatomy and blood supply of proximal end of femur and its      importance in safe surgical dislocation of hip.
4.a. Fracture healing
    b. Various factors influencing fracture healing
 5.a. Morning stiffness.
    b. Angular deformity of knee in children.
6.a.Differentiate between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
    b. Management of osteoarthritis of knee in elderly
7.Etiopathogenesis ,clinical features, diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel syndrome.
8.a. Classify scoliosis.
    b. Clinical features and management of slipped upper femoral      epiphysis
10.a.Triple deformity of knee
b. Tarsal tunnel syndrome; clinical features and management
11. Course of radial nerve and its applied surgical significance.
12.Etiopathogenesis ,clinical features, prevention and management of Volkmann’s ischemic contracture.
13.What is thoracic outlet syndrome? Discuss briefly about its various causes.
14.a.Motor march.
      b.Painful arc syndrome- etiopathogenseis and management
15.a.Pseudo fractures.
      b. Myositis ossificans,diagnosis and management
16.a. Enumerate various causes of limp in a child.
     b.Clinical features and management of painful limp with high grade fever in  5 yr old child,
17. Causes of maltracking of patella.
18.Surgical management of recurrent dislocation of patella in a child.
19.Diagnosis and managemnt of pott’s paraplegia.
20.Knuckle bender splint
21.Pantalar arthrodesis
22. Synovial chondromatosis-diagnosis and management
23.Osteoid osteoma-diagnosis and management
DNB PAPER 2015
1.A. Classify traumatic dislocation of shoulder
    B. Diagnosis and management of neglected posterior dislocation of shoulder in a young adult
2.A.Classify acetabular fracture
    B.Role of radiological investigations  in management of acetabular  fractures
3.A.Acute management of traumatic knee dislocation
    B.Classify multi ligament knee injury and principles of managing such cases
4.A.Crush syndrome
   B.Spinal shock
5.A.Herbert screw
    B.Skeletal traction in acute trauma
6.A.Classify open fractures
    B. Management of open fracture shaft of tibia in a tertiary care setting
7.A. Enumerate causes of stiff elbow
    B. Surgical management of post traumatic ankylosis of elbow in extension
8.A.Define polytrauma
    B.Clinical presentation, complications and general principles of management of polytrauma
9.A.Role of ligamentotaxis in acute trauma
    B.PTB Cast
10.A.Tension band wiring
      B. Brown sequard syndrome; etiopathogenesis and clinical features
11.Bone bank and the role of allografts in orthopaedic practice
12.Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis
13.Limb salvage in malignant bone tumours with special emphasis on  osteosarcoma of distal end of femur.
14.A.Minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis
       B.Distraction histiogenesis
15.A.Wake up test
      B.Bioabsorbable implants
16.Increasing role of minimum invasive techniques in orthopaedics and the role of arthroscopy in the management of intra articular fractures.
17.Problems encountered and the use of various modalities in surgical management of fragility fractures.
18. A. Common surgical factors affecting the early outcome of total hip arthroplasty.
       B. Recent advances in the field of total hip arthroplasty
19.A. Terrible triad of death
     B. Scapular dyskinesis.
20.A. Role of whole body CT scan in trauma

      B.Role of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in orthopaedics.
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com


DNB #Orthopaedics June 2015 Paper 1-4

                                         PART A
WRITE SHORT NOTES ON:
  1.     Pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of rickets.
  2.     A) structure of physis with suitable diagrams
          B)classify the physeal injuries
  3. Evidence based medicine
  4. Pathophysiology , diagnosis and management of fat embolism syndrome
  5.  Role of nuclear scan studies in orthopedic practice

                                                  
PART B

Short notes on :
1. a) gait cycle
    b) list various types of gaits
    c) features of antalgic and trendelenberg gait
2. a) synovial fluid analysis
    b) wallarian degeneration
3. a) nerve conduction velocity
    b) clinical features, diagnosis, treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome
4. a) properties of bone graft
    b) different types of bone grafts, bone graft substitute and their      
        incorporation
5. a) role of biofilm in implant infection
    b) production, regulation and management of biofilm

PART – A
Write short notes on:
1.     a) dupuytren’s contracture
        b)  tibial hemimelia
2.     a) sunderland’s classification of nerve injury
        b) tendon transfers or ulnar nerve palsy
3.     surgical steps of:
        a)     hardinge approach to hip
        b)    antero-lateral decompression of D5 – D6 spine
4.    a) ATT regimens in bone and joint tuberculosis
       b) safe surgical dislocation : indications and key steps
5.    a) clinical and radiological features in diagnosis of developmental     
             dyspalsia of hip(DDH)
       b)treatment of unilateral DDH in an 18 month old child.


                                              PART – B
6. a) stage of tubercular arthritis hip
    b) differentiating clinical features, treatment and prognosis of each
       stage
7. differentiate between
    a) neurological and vascular claudication
    b) paraplegia with active disease(early onset paraplegia) and
        paraplegia with healed disease(late onset paraplegia)
8. a) enumerate fibrous lesions of bone
    b) clinical features, diagnosis and management of fibrous dysplasia of   
       bone
9. a) Osgood – Schlatter disease
    b) congenital vertical talus
10.a) flexor zones of hand
      b) clinical features and management of a 2 month old with zone 2
          injury


Paper 3 part A
Short notes on:
1 a) what is reverse shoulder arthroplasty
   b) how is it different from conventional shoulder arthroplasty
2 a) randomized control trial
   b)instrumentation in spinal tuberculosis- rationale and indications
3) applications of MRI in diagnosis and managment of spinal tumours
4) differentiate between
   ) primary and secondary fracture healing
   b) sach foot and jaipur foot
5) A) enumerate the bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty
   B) advantages and disadvantages of each bearing surfaces

Paper 3 part B
6) classsify periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures after total hip arthroplasty and their treatment options
7) A. Classify calcaneal fractures
    B.management principles and complications of calcaneal fracture
8) A. Mangled extremity severity score
    B. Ganga score
9) A. Pulseless pink hand following a supracondylar fracture of a humerus in a child
    B.hoffa 's fracture
10 A. Enumerate the causes of rupture of achilles tendon
    B.diagnosis and treatment of a fresh case of rupture of achilles tendon in 60yr old patient

Paper 4 part A
Short notes on:
1)a.classify tibial plateau fracture
B.mechanism of injury,evaluation and treatment of each type
2)a. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality(schiwora)
   b.. Hangman's fracture
3)a.define compartment syndrome 
    b. clinical features,investigations and management of acute compartment syndrome of leg
4)a. Mechanism of injury of 'unhappy triad of O'donoghue'
B.outline management of chronic ACL insufficiency in a young athelete
5)a.ligamentotaxis
B.classification of fracture of distal end of radius
Paper 4 part B
1)a. Oncogenic osteomalacia
   b. autologous chondrocyte implantation
2)current concepts in management of osteosarcoma
3)a.DMARDS in rheumatoid arthritis
   b. local antibiotic delivery
4)current concepts in the management of skeletal metastasis
5)a. Classify neglected femoral neck fracture in adults
  b..treatment with rationale in each type of neglected femoral neck fracture
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB ORTHOPAEDICS DEC 2014
DNB Orthopaedics DEC 2014

PAPER I

PART A

1. Define Torticollis. Enumerate the signs and  symptoms of Congenital Torticollis in a 9 yr old child. How will you manage spasmodic torticollis in a child?

2. Define Trigger Finger. What are the causes. Describe the clinical feature and surgical management of trigger thumb?

3. What is Myoelectric  Prosthesis.What are it’s  components ?It’s applications and advantages.

4. Describe the anatomy of Common Peroneal Nerve. Name the muscles supplied by the nerve and the tendon transfer in CPN Palsy.

5. TB of Cervical Spine.

PART B

Write short notes on

6. Clinical features of gout and management of acute attack of gout.

7. Enumerate Causes of avascular necrosis(AVN) and non  arth roplasty surgical methods of AVN of femoral head .Describe core decompression.

8.  A Iliotibial band

     B Bone cement

9.  A. Chymopapain

     B. Methotrexate in Orthopaedics

10. Frozen shoulder .Clinical features and management.

PAPER II

PART A

1. Ponsetti  Steps in CTEV Correction

2. Compound Palmar Ganglion

3. a.Bikini Incision               

   b.Schanz  Osteotomy

4. a.CleidocranialDysostosis 

   b. Genu Valgum

5. a Vascular  Claudication

    b . Synovial Fluid

PART  B

6. a Gluteus Maximus flap in the  management of decubitus ulcer

     b.Stove-in- Chest

7.a. Fibrous Dysplasia

    b.Corticotomy

8.a.Factors influencing spinal curve progression in congenital scoliosis

   b. Neurofibromastosis

9. What is felon?It’s  preferred management  and it’s difference from paronychia.

10. Draw diagram(s) of  anatomical and mechanical axis of lower limb and briefly discuss the biomechanical principles of total knee replacement.



PAPER III

PART A

1. What is cast syndrome?Discuss it’s clinical symptoms and management.

2. Mechanism , clinical features and management of scaphoid fractures.

3. Classify open fractures .Discuss the emergency management of Grade3B  G(Gustilo &Anderson)Open fractures of tibia.

4. a. Damage Control Orthopaedics

    b.Stress fracture

5. Define ‘Virchow’s triad’ .Discuss the management  of DVT

PART  B

6. a.Stimson method to reduce Posterior Dislocation Hip

   b.Cubitus Valgus

7. a.Bankart’s Lesion

    b.Necrotizing Fascitis

8.a. Metabolic Acidosis

   b.Post operative fever

9. Define Component therapy. Enumerate and mention uses of various  blood fractions.

10. What is pneumatic tourniquet? Discuss it’s uses, complications & safety guidelines



PAPER IV

PART A

Write short notes on

1.a. Gene therapy in orthopaedics

   b.Induced membrane formation to cover bone defects

2. What are the commonly used absorbable sutures in Orthopaedics ? Compare their properties

3. What is “Sandwich Technique”? Describe this technique  in management of Giant Cell Tumour  of distal end of radius.

4. Indications ,positioning, portals and  complications of hip arthroscopy.

5.Role of bisphosphonates in the management of  Osteoporosis  and their complications.



PART  B



6. PET Scan  in Orthopaedic practice.

7. Vascular Fibular Grafting in management of neglected fracture neck of femur.

8. a. Autologous transfusion

   b. Platelet rich plasma



9.Advances in articular cartilage tissue engineering.

10. a.Telemedicine
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB Orthopaedics June 2014 Questions
1. Describe the stages of fracture healing .List the factors influencing the fracture healing. What are the causes of nonunion? 4+4+2

 2. Define peak bone mass. What factors affect attaining peak bone mass? How does it correlate with osteoporosis? 2+4+4

3. Describe the principles of ultrasonography. Discuss its clinical use in Orthopaedic practice. 4+6

 4. Write briefly the current presentation and treatment strategies in MRSA infection. Briefly mention about its evaluation. (3+5)+2

 5. Describe the potential spaces of hand. Discuss clinical features and treatment of deep space infection of hand. 4+(2+4)

6. Allograft – Definition , types, principles of preparation, advantages and disadvantages. 2+2+2+2+2

 7. Wallerian degeneration – Definition and pathology. 10

 8. a) Principles of Tendon transfer. b) Tendon transfer for high radial nerve palsy. 4+6

 9. What is evidence based medicine? Describe the hierarchy of evidence. Discuss the differences in various types of studies 2+4+4

10. Enumerate the differential diagnosis of limping child (10 years). Differentiate between a case of septic arthritis with transient synovitis. 5+5

 11. Describe the indications of surgery in tuberculosis of spine. Discuss role of instrumented stabilization in TB spine. 6+4

12. Describe the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Madelung deformity . 3+2+2+3

 13. Describe the flexor zones of hand. Outline the treatment of flexor tendon injury (acute and chronic) in zone II. 3+7

14. Discuss pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of L4-L5 intervertebral disc prolapse. 2+3+2+3

 15. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Pigmented villonodular synovitis . 2+3+2+3

 16. Discuss in brief pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of fibrous dysplasia of bone. 2+3+2+3

17. List the osteotomies around hip. Write briefly about the principles of each osteotomy. 3+7

 18. Define the recurrent dislocation of patella. Discuss in brief its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. 2+(2+3+3)

19. Define distraction histiogenesis. Discuss the principles of distraction histiogenesis. Enumerate the indications of distraction histiogenesis in orthopaedic practice. 2+5+3

20. Define Tom Smith’s hip arthritis. Discussthe clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and sequelae. 2+(2+2+2+2)

 21. Classify fracture of acetabulum. Outline treatment of specific fracture patterns. 2+8

 22.Classify fracture neck and femur in children. Discuss the treatment principles and prognosis. 3+(4+3)

23. What is whiplash injury of cervical spine? Discussits clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. 3+(2+2+3)

24. Discuss the tension band principles. Describe its clinical use in fracture management. 4+6

25. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of acute compartment syndrome. 2+3+2+3

26. Discuss the “ASIA SCORE”. Classify bladder paralysis in spinal cord injury with salient features. 4+6

 27. Classify ankle injuries. Discuss in brief the treatment principles of each type. 3+7

28. Classify epiphyseal injuries. Describe the treatment principles and complications of each type. 3+7

 29. Describe the classification used for open fractures. Discuss in brief Ganga score. 6+4

 30.Discuss the pathology , clinical features, diagnosis and treatment principles of nonunion of fracture scaphoid. 2+2+3+3

31. List the various generations of cementing techniques. Discuss their difference in brief. 10

32. Differentiate between parosteal and periosteal osteosarcoma in terms of pathology, clinical features, treatment and prognosis. 2+3+3=2

33. Describe in brief the current state of knowledge of use of stem cells in Orthopaedic practice. 10

34. Describe principles and clinical use of:- a) PET Scan b) Bone Scan 5+5

35. Discuss principles of limb salvage surgery in malignant bone tumor. List the indications and contraindications. 5+(2+3)

36. Discuss the surgical steps of : a) Anterolateral decompression of D5-6 tuberculosis of spine b) Anterolateral exposure of hip 5+5

 37. Write short notes on a) Plagiarism b) Impact factor 5+5

38. Describe the pathology of nerve regeneration. Classify nerve injuries. 5+5

 39. Describe the role of PCL in knee arthroplasty. Discuss the benefits of PCL retention v/s substitution. 4+6

40. Name the biomaterials used in Orthopaedics. Discuss their characteristic features.
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB Ortho 2013 December Questions
  • 1)      Tuberculosis  - dorsal spine with paraplegia
    Briefly discuss clinical features , investigations , differential diagnosis and principles of  management
    2)      Aetiology and pathoanatomy of recurrent dislocation of shoulder . Outline the principles of management .
    3)      Methods of nerve repair and methods of closing gaps between nerve ends.
    4)      High tibial osteotomy.
    5)      Valgus osteotomy of hip.
    6)      Wound ballistics.
    7)      Fat embolism
    8)      Thoracic outlet syndrome – aetiology , clinical features and management .
    9)      Neuropathic arthropathy –aetiology , diagnosis and principles of management.
    10)   Multiple myeloma – clinical features , diagnosis , management
    11)   Fluorosis
    12)   Halopelvic device
    13)   Necrotising fascitis
    14)   Femoroacetabular impingement
    15)   Proximal  humerus fracture – diagnosis , management in elderly patients and complications.
    16)   Whiplash injury – clinical features , investigations and management.
    17)   Factors responsible for post traumatic stiffness of elbow , management of stiff elbow .
    18)   Gas gangrene – aetiology , pathogenesis , diagnosis and management.
    19)   Infected fracture shaft of femur after surgery for shaft of femur, discuss principles of management
    20)   Complications of total knee arthroplasty.classify periprosthetic  fractures and discuss their management.
    21)   How to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament injury clinically? Investigations and management of acl injury in young athletes reporting after injury .
    22)   Classify fracture neck of talus . Management ? Hawkins sign ?
    23)   Indications of amputations ? Principles of amputations in children and adults



    1)      Clinical Presentations In Rheumatoid Hand . Pathoanatomy Of These Lesions
    2)      DDH . Pathoanatomy  ,Diagnosis And Management .
    3)      Anterior Interossious Nerve Syndrome .
    4)      Nutritional Rickets . Clinical Features , X-Ray And Management.
    5)      Erbs Palsy .
    6)      Metatarsus Adductus
    7)      Botulinum







    1V-PART A
    1)Spinal Canal Stenosis
    2)Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
    3)What Is Bone Cement? Indications? Contraindications For Usage ? Methods Of Bone Cementing ? Mention Complications
    4)Highly Crosslinked Polyethylene
    5) PET Scan
    6)Enumerate  Various Methods For Bone Mineral Measurement . Define Its Density In Various Conditions . Discuss Management Of Osteoporotic Fractures .
    PART – B
    1)      Tourniquet  in orthopaedics
    2)      Neurogenic Bladder
    3)      What Is A Tubercle? Discuss Pathoanatomy , Diagnosis And Principles Of Management Of Cold Abscess?
    4)      Effects Of Reaming Of Bone
    5)      Biofilm
    6)      Define Shock. Discuss Management Of Shock In A Polytrauma Patient .
    7)      Describe Various Bone Graft Substitutes. Their Method Of Application , Ways Of Incorporation And Complications.
    8)      Myoelectric prosthesis. Describe its components , applications and advantages in brief.
    9)      Describe the classifications and the principles of management of congenital pseudoarthrosis of tibia.
    10)   Management of claw hand in a patient suffering from leprosy.
    11)   Hip arthrography.
    12)   Ponseti technique in CTEV
    13)   Strength-duration curve.
    14)   Electromyography.

  • 1)Spinal Canal Stenosis
    2)Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
    3)What Is Bone Cement? Indications? Contraindications For Usage ? Methods Of Bone Cementing ? Mention Complications
    4)Highly Crosslinked Polyethylene
    5) PET Scan
    6)Enumerate  Various Methods For Bone Mineral Measurement . Define Its Density In Various Conditions . Discuss Management Of Osteoporotic Fractures .
    PART – B
    1)      Tourniquet  in orthopaedics
    2)      Neurogenic Bladder
    3)      What Is A Tubercle? Discuss Pathoanatomy , Diagnosis And Principles Of Management Of Cold Abscess?
    4)      Effects Of Reaming Of Bone
    5)      Biofilm
    6)      Define Shock. Discuss Management Of Shock In A Polytrauma Patient .
    7)      Describe Various Bone Graft Substitutes. Their Method Of Application , Ways Of Incorporation And Complications.
    8)      Myoelectric prosthesis. Describe its components , applications and advantages in brief.
    9)      Describe the classifications and the principles of management of congenital pseudoarthrosis of tibia.
    10)   Management of claw hand in a patient suffering from leprosy.
    11)   Hip arthrography.
    12)   Ponseti technique in CTEV
    13)   Strength-duration curve.
    14)   Electromyography.
  • Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB Ortho June 2013
PAPER 1
1.what is reperfusion injury? How can we prevent it? Outline the principles of its management
2.describe bone healing. Discuss factors influencing bone healing
3.describe the clinical presentation of posterior dislocation of hip.how will u reduce it with Bigelow's method? Discuss causes which make reduction difficult. Enumerate complications of posterior dislocation of hip
4.write short notes on
A.plaster of paris
B.bone cement
C.torus fracture
5.describe  the clinical features, radiology and treatment of non ossifying fibroma
6.classify nerve injuries. write briefly about their prognosis
7.discuss differentiating features between osteonecrosis and transient migratory osteoporosis
8.describr the design of pelvic 'C' clamp. what are the indication of its application and method to fix an unstable fracture
9.what is tuberculoma? Discuss the primary drugs used to treat Tuberculosis of spine.enumerate the complications of isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol
10.write short notes on
A.vitamin D resistant rickets
B.cast syndrome

Paper II

Part A
1.what is Kienbocks disease.write in brief etiology, diagnosis and management of this condition
2.describe clinical features , investigation s, management of acute osteomyelitis of upper end of tibia in a 10 year old child
3.discuss the patho anatomy of congenital talipes equinus varus
4.what is dupuytren's fracture dislocation? Discuss its management
5.write short notes on
A.mallet finger
B.blood supply of scaphoid bone
Part b
6. define and classify epiphyseal injuries.discuss the management of Salter and Harris type 4 epiphyseal injury
7.write short  notes on
A.discoid meniscus
B.congenital muscular torticollis
8.discuss the principles of application of Milwaukee's brace .what are the clinical features of idiopathic kyphoscoliosis? Enumerate the indications of surgical intervention
9.what is jaipur foot? Discuss the absolute and relative indications of amputation
10.discuss  the etiology , clinical features and treatment of sudeck's atrophy

Paper III
Part A
1 .enumerate the portals for arthroscopy of knee joint. Describe the various arthroscopies, their accessories and indication of arthroscopy of knee joint
2.classify pelvic fracture. Describe various radiological views for assessing pelvic injuries. How will u manage rotationally unstable pelvic injuries. 
3.describe ilizarov fixator and corticotomy. How will u manage a case of defect non union
4.short notes on
1.myossitis ossificans
2.habitual dislocation of patella
5.what is 'VAC'? How will u manage a case of compound fracture of tibia having no neurovascular deficit
Part b
6what is damage control orthopedics.how will u manage a case.of fracture shaft of femur with lung contusions in an adult
7.short notes on
1.gram negative septicemia
2.LCP
8.define osteoporosis. Describe various radiological investigations in a patient with osteoporosis. How will u manage a case of fracture D12 in an adult
9.describe clinical features of osteogenesis imperfecta. discuss the types of osteogenesis imperfecta.how does it differ from batter baby syndrome
10.draw diagrams of brachial plexus
How will u clinically differentiate preganglioic and post ganglionic lesions?

Paper IV
1.describe the blood supply of femoral head.how does it differ in adults and children
2.describe the anatomy of tibialis posterior tendon.what is tibialis posterior dysfunction.describe management of such cases
3.discuss the anatomy of parathyroid gland.describe the clinical features, radiological presentation of adenoma of parathyroid gland.what is hungry bone syndrome?
4.describe etiopathogenesis, clinical features , management of alkaptonuria
5.what are the indicationof excision of head of radius? Describe the posterolateral approach
Part b
1.short notes on
A.BMP
B.ALLOGRAFT
2. describe the anatomy of central and lateral canals  in the lumbar spine in relation to lumbar stenosis. How will u clinically differentiate central from lateral lumbar canal stenosis. Briefly describe the management
3.describe the gross physical features of synovial fluid. Discuss the characteristic features in various pathological conditions  vis a vis microscopic and biochemical analysis
4.describe the mechanism of bacterial colonization and perpetuation in osteomyelitis after orthopedic implant surgery. How is the situation different in tuberculous infection of musculoskeletal system
5.write short notes
A.chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis
B.combined angle of anteversion during total hip arthroplasty.
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB Ortho December 2012
Paper 1 
1. Differentiate between: a) Primary bone healing and secondary bone healing.
b) DCP and locked compression plate
2. Define functional cast bracing. Discuss the indications and principles of applications of patellar tendon bearing cast.
3. Describe the biomechanics of hip. Discuss Trendelenburg test and gait.
4. Write short notes on:
a) Ganga score
b) Spine at risk sign
5. Describe the principles of ultrasonography. List the usage of ultrasonography in orthopedic practice.
6. Briefly describe methods to cover defects after excision of primary malignant tumors of bone. What is extracorporeal irradiated tumour bone?
7. Write short notes on:
a) Scurvy
b) Hyperparathyroidism
8. Write short notes on: - 
a) Impact factor -
b) Plagiarism 
c) Randomized Control Trial (RCT)
 9. Describe the anatomy of posterior cruciate ligament. Discuss the  pros and cons of cruciate retaining Vs cruciate sacrificing total knee replacement.
10.  Bleeding disorders encountered in orthopedic practice. What is a hemophilíc pseudotumor? Discuss its management.
Paper 2
11.  Discuss the pathology, clinical features and management of synovial chondromatosis.
22. What is “Diffuse Interstitial Skeletal Hyperostosis' 
Describe the clinical features and its management.
33. What is compartment syndrome? Discuss aetiology, clinical picture and management of compartment syndrome of the leg.
44. What is surgical dislocation of the hip joint? Enumerate the indications and key technical steps.
55.     Write short notes on:
a) IT(Iliotibial) band contracture ín Polio
b) Strength duration curve
6. Write short notes on.
a) Giant cell variants
b) Psoas abscess
7. Define the “Borderline” patient in polytrauma. Discuss the clinical and investigative parameters to decide whether the patient should be managed by Early Total Care (ETC) Vs Damage Control Orthopedics -(DCO).
8. short notes on:
a) Management strategies `in a HIV patient with a fresh compound fracture of leg bones.
b) Mádelung defonnity.
9. Describe in brief etiology, pathology, clinical presentation and the principles of management of Charcots joints.
10. what is reverse shoulder replacement? How is it different from conventional shoulder arthroplasty? Enumerate the indications  and biochemical basis of the design of this prosthesis.
Paper 3
1.      Discuss the pathogenesis. clinical features and management of  Dupuytren's contracture.
2.      Describe the classification, clinical features and management of  tibial hemimelia.
3.      Describe the flexor tendon zones of the hand. Describe the management of cut flexor tendons of middle finger in zone Ill.
4.      Describe the classification of Perthe's disease. Enumerate 'Head at Risk’ signs. List prognostic factors in Perthe’s disease.
5.      Write short notes on:
a) Electrodiagnosis in carpal tunnel syndrome
b) Salter's osteotomy
6          Write short notes on:
a) Isokinetic exercises
b) Steenbeek brace
6.       Describe the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of  renal osteodystrophy.
7.      Describe the pathology, clinical features, radiological findings and treatment of diaphyseal aclasis.
8.      What is crouch gait? How will you evaluate such a patient? Discuss the management.
9. Write short notes on:
a) Quadriceps contracture of infancy and childhood.
b) Pathoanatomy of clubfoot.
 Paper 4
1.      Classify acromioclavicular joint injuries. Discuss diagnosis and management.
2.      Describe the mechanism of injury, classification and treatment of  Hangman’s fracture.
3.      Describe the mechanism of injury and classification of tibia! pilon  fracture. Discuss the management.
4.      Classify perioperative femoral stem fractures around the hip joint.  Discuss the treatment options.
5. Write short notes on: -
a)      Role of injectable methyl prednisolone in post traumatic spinal injuries.
b)       Classificatíon of incomplete spinal cord syndromes.
6. Classify acetabular fracture. Outline the treatment of each fracture type.
7. Define post traumatic stiff knee. Discuss in brief its causes, diagnosis and management.
8. What are the components of “Terrible triad of the Elbow"? Describe  the mechanism and principles of management.
9. Discuss the diagnosis of radial nerve palsy. Suggest the treatment guidelines for closed fracture of humerus with radial nerve palsy.
10. Define hierarchy of evidence. Define broad principles of each level of evidence.
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB Orthopaedics Theory Paper June 2012
PAPER 1

11. Define MDR Tuberculosis. Discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of a case of MDR tuberculosis of spine (1+2+3+4)
22. Discuss the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and Differential Diagnosis of Heterotopic Ossification (3+3+4)
33. Discuss treatment options of the focal cartilage defect over the medial femoral condyle in a 40 yr old man  (10)
44.  Discuss the management of deep vein thrombosis in orthopaedic patients
55.  Describe the illustrative diagrams of the surgical exposure of radius at various levels (10)
66.  Describe the surgical reconstruction in a case of one and a half yr old common peroneal nerve palsy  (10)
77.  Describe the principles of stabilization of foot
88.  write in brief (5+5)  a.Ceramic bearing surfaces in arthroplasty
                              b.Bone scan in musculoskeletal disorder.
99. Enumerate causes of claw hand deformity. Discuss its management in short (3+7)
110. Write brief notes on 4+(3+3)       a. Alendronate induced fractures
                                                    b.Diagnosis and treatment of osteomalacia




PAPER 2

1.Describe the treatment of acute flexor tendon injuries in various zones of hand  (10)
2.Describe the Aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Madelung deformity(3+3+4)
3.Describe the clinical features ,diagnosis and management of tuberculosis hip in children(3+3+4)
4.Discuss the differential diagnosis and investigation in an 8 yr old child with persistent limp((5+5)
5.Classify congenital skeletal limb deficiencies(10)
6.Discuss in brief(5+5)     a.Sequelae of pyogenic arthritis of hip in infancy
                                      b.Intoeing gait
7.Describe the aetiopathology and management of SCFE(4+6)
8.write SN on (5+5)  a.FRO
                              b.IT(interferential therapy)
9.WRite brief notes on (5+5)     a.Role of orthosis in treatmnt of clubfoot
                                              b.patellar tendon bearing prosthesis
10.write brief notes on (5+5)     a.Clinical and radiological diagnosis of scurvy
                                             b.Adolescnt coxa vara
PAPER 3

1.  Describe the management of failed osteosynthesis of fracture neck of femur in a young adult(10)
2.Discuss the management of diaphyseal gap nonunion with 5 cm bone loss in a young adult(10)
3.Describe the tension band principle and how it is used in fracture care(5+5)
4.describe the classification of  thoracolumbar injuries and discuss the treatment of burst fracture L1(5+5)
5.Describe the classification, clinical features and management of Lisfranc's fracture dislocation(3+3+4)
6.Describe the Sander's classification of calcaneal fractures and discuss the treatment of each type (4+6)
7.Describe the classification of the distal humeral fractures  in adults. Describe the surgical approaches used for internal fixation of these fractures  (4+6)
8.Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Discuss the treatment of nonunion of scaphoid  (4+6)
9.Describe the mechanism of injury of Radial head fracture. Discuss its classification and management  (3+3+4)
10.write SN on  (5+5)  a.External fixator in musculoskeletal injuries
                                 b.Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infection.




PAPER   4

1.Describe the structure of bone with illustrative diagram(s)    (10)
2. List the factors affecting Ca metabolism. Describe the radiological features of rickets   (5+5)
3.write SN on nuclear medicine and its applications in orthopaedics   (5+5)
4.Discuss the anatomical basis of thoracic outlet syndrome and its management  (5+5)
5.Discuss the therapeutical potential  of stem cells in musculoskeletal disorders  (10)
6.Describe the musculoskeletal manifestations in sickle cell anaemia(10)
7.Describe the clinical features, laboratory findings and management of gout    (3+3+4)
8.Describe the gait cycle .List various types of gait with diagnostic features   (4+6)
9.Describe the methods used  for augmentation of fracture healing   (10)
10. Describe the role of Ultrasonography in musculoskeletal disorders   (10)
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB December 2011
DNB Final 2011 December Orthopedic Question papers
PAPER I
1. Describe the pathology, clinical features and principles of treatment of a neuropathic joint.
2. Describe the pathophysiology of Polytrauma patient and discuss the principles of Damage Control Orthopedics.
3. Discuss the etiopathology, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of D.V.T.
4. Describe the pathology, diagnosis and broad principles of management of ankylosing spondylitis.
5. Discuss the pathophysiology and principles of treatment of Heterotopic ossification.
6. Discuss the surgical options in the treatment of mild medial compartment osteoarthrosis of knee in a 40 years old man.
7. a. Autonomic dysreflexia in Spinal Cord lnjury
b. Femoro-acetabular lmpingement Syndrome
8. Describe the pathology of avascular necrosis of femoral head and outline the principles of management in Ficat 3 stage of femoral head in a 30 years old man.
9. a. Pigmented villonodular synovitis
b. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
10. a. Transient migralory osteoporosis
b. Early tendon transfer in Radial Nerve Palsy
PAPER II
1. Define osteomyelitis. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of acute osteomyelitis in a child.
2. List the causes of limp in an 8 years old child. Describe the differentiating features of septic arthritis with transient synovitis.
3. What is Kienbock's disease? Write briefly its etiology, diagnosis, clinical staging and management.
4. Describe "JAIPUR FOOT". Discuss the difference with 'SACH FOOT'& -MADRAS FOOT"?
5. a. SOMI brace
b. lnterferential Therapy (lFT)
6. Define ulnar claw hand. Discuss the tendon transfer for ulnar claw hand following ulnar nerve injury.
7. a. Radial Club Hand
b. Congenital Vertical Talus
8. Describe the flexor zones of hand. Discuss the principles of acute tendon repair (zone-wise).
9. a. Renal Rickets.
b. Salter's Osteotomy
10. a. Strength Duration Curve
b. Congenital Torticollis
PAPER III
1. Classify distal radius fractures. Describe radiological indices of wrist. Discuss the treatment principles of extra-articular distal radius fractures.
2. Classify infected nonunion. Discuss the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia.
3. Discuss the diagnosis and management of Anterior cruciate Ligament (ACL) lnjury.
4. Discuss the differences between :-
a. Machine screw and ASIF screw
b. DCP, LCDCP, Locking plate
c. Static compression and Dynamic compression
5. Classify proximal tibial fractures. Outline the management of type lV, V, and Vl fractures.
6. a. Fracture head of femur
b. Classification of Calcaneal fracture
7. Discuss the management of osteoporotic spinal fractures.
8. Describe the blood supply of talus. classify "Talar neck fractures". Discuss treatment and list complications.
9. Describe the structure of physis. Classify physeal injury. Outline the treatment of physeal injury and enumerate the compiications.
10. Define and classify Montegia fracture dislocation. Discuss the treatment principles of neglected Montegia fracture dislocation in a 10 years old child.
PAPER IV
1. Describe the extensor mechanism of knee and the factors that predispose to recurrent dislocation of patella.
2. Draw a cross section of peripheral nerve and label the structures. Describe Sunderland's classification of nerve injury.
3. a. Plaster Cast Syndrome
b. Bone morphogenic protein
4. Describe Stress, Strain, and Young's Modulus of Elasticity in relation to Orthopedic implants.
5. Describe 'free vascularized bone transplant. Discuss the principles of technique and applications in Orthopaedic practice.
6. Discuss the role of parathyroid glands in calcium metabolism.
7. Discuss the principles of application of Functional Cast Bracing in ' the management of diaphyseal fractures of long bones.
8. Discuss ceramics as bearing surface in Total Hip Arthroplasty.
9. a. Biodegradable lmplants
b. Principles and applications of lnterlocking Nailing
10. a. Unicameral Bone Cyst
b. Parosteal Osteosarcoma
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

DNB December 2010 Theory papers
Paper 1
1. Define neuropathic joint. List the causes of neuropathic joint. Mention in brief the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic joint.
2. Define gout. Describe in brief its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.?
3. Describe the broad principles of tendon transfer. Enumerate the tendon transfer for high radial nerve palsy.
4. Discuss the indications of surgery in TB spine with or without
neurological complications.
5. Draw a labeled diagram of brachial plexus. Classify brachial plexus
injury. Describe the clinical features and management of lower brachial
plexus injury.
6. Describe various types of lumbar root anomalies. List the
complications of lumbar disc surgery.
7. Define "Fat Embolism Syndrome". Describe in brief the clinical -
features, diagnosis and management of "Fat Embolism Syndrome".
8. Define Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) of bone. Describe in brief clinical
features, diagnosis and management principles of GCT of upper end
of tibia.
9. Describe aetiopathogenesis of avascular necrosis of hip. Classify
avascular necrosis of hip. Comment on broad principles of its
management.
10. Define ochronotic arthropathy. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and management.

Paper 2


1. Define congenital muscular torticollis. List the differential diagnosis and outline the management of congenital muscular torticollis. 
2. Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of nonunion of scaphoid. 
3. Define ulnar claw hand. Enumerate the causes of ulnar claw hand. Discuss its management. 
4. Describe Dupuytren disease and its characteristic f,eatures. Describe in brief its pathogenesis prognosis and management. 
5. Describe the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis. Describe in brief the Patho-anatomy and treatment of “Boutonneire deformity”. 
6. Define pseudoarthrosis of tibia. Describe its pathogenesis, diagnosis, classification and management
7. Define Legg Calves Perthes disease. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and management 
8. Classify physeal injuries. Describe the management and complications of various types of physeal injuries. 
9. List the causes of limp in a child. 
10. Describe the Pathology and radiological signs in rickets and scurvy. 

Paper 3
I. Classify proximal humerus fracture. Discuss the management options for various types. Outline the management for type IV fracture in elderly females. 
2. Describe pitfalls in using the Locking Compression Plate. 
3. Classify open fractures of tibia. Describe the management of type 3 b open fracture of tibia. 
4. Describe briefly the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, investigations and treatment of painful elbow following injury around elbow. 
5. Describe classification of Monteggia fracture dislocation and its management. 
6. Define nonunion. Describe the classification and broad principles of management of diaphyseal nonunion. 
7. Define Tension Band principle. Describe the use of Tension Band principle in fracture surgery. 
8. Define external fixation. Classify the external fixators. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of external fixation. 
9. Classify thoracolumbar spine injuries. Give radiological classification of burst fracture. Outline the management of burst fracture of LI vertebra. 
10. Describe various methods of treatment of distal radius fracture with their principles. 


Paper 4
1. Describe different types of bone grafts along with their properties. 
2. Describe the phases of normal gait and the types of muscle contractions in gait cycle. 
3. Write short note on Nuclear medicine and its applications in Orthopedics. 
4. What is flap reconstruction? Write its classification. 
5. What are the types of epiphysis? Describe the types, various methods and indications of epiphysiodesis. 
6. Write short note on Coxa Vara. 
7. Describe pathogenesis of acute compartment syndrome and its diagnosis. 
8. Name biomaterials used in orthopedics. Describe in brief their features. 
9. Describe nerve injuries, Sunderland Classification, outcome expected and basis of repair. 
10. Describe the various foot and ankle deformities in cerebral palsy and their management.

1. Define congenital muscular torticollis. List the differential diagnosis and outline the management of congenital muscular torticollis. 
2. Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of nonunion of scaphoid. 
3. Define ulnar claw hand. Enumerate the causes of ulnar claw hand. Discuss its management. 
4. Describe Dupuytren disease and its characteristic f,eatures. Describe in brief its pathogenesis prognosis and management. 
5. Describe the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis. Describe in brief the Patho-anatomy and treatment of “Boutonneire deformity”. 
6. Define pseudoarthrosis of tibia. Describe its pathogenesis, diagnosis, classification and management
7. Define Legg Calves Perthes disease. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and management 
8. Classify physeal injuries. Describe the management and complications of various types of physeal injuries. 
9. List the causes of limp in a child. 
10. Describe the Pathology and radiological signs in rickets and scurvy. 

Paper 3
I. Classify proximal humerus fracture. Discuss the management options for various types. Outline the management for type IV fracture in elderly females. 
2. Describe pitfalls in using the Locking Compression Plate. 
3. Classify open fractures of tibia. Describe the management of type 3 b open fracture of tibia. 
4. Describe briefly the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, investigations and treatment of painful elbow following injury around elbow. 
5. Describe classification of Monteggia fracture dislocation and its management. 
6. Define nonunion. Describe the classification and broad principles of management of diaphyseal nonunion. 
7. Define Tension Band principle. Describe the use of Tension Band principle in fracture surgery. 
8. Define external fixation. Classify the external fixators. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of external fixation. 
9. Classify thoracolumbar spine injuries. Give radiological classification of burst fracture. Outline the management of burst fracture of LI vertebra. 
10. Describe various methods of treatment of distal radius fracture with their principles. 


Paper 4
1. Describe different types of bone grafts along with their properties. 
2. Describe the phases of normal gait and the types of muscle contractions in gait cycle. 
3. Write short note on Nuclear medicine and its applications in Orthopedics. 
4. What is flap reconstruction? Write its classification. 
5. What are the types of epiphysis? Describe the types, various methods and indications of epiphysiodesis. 
6. Write short note on Coxa Vara. 
7. Describe pathogenesis of acute compartment syndrome and its diagnosis. 
8. Name biomaterials used in orthopedics. Describe in brief their features. 
9. Describe nerve injuries, Sunderland Classification, outcome expected and basis of repair. 
10. Describe the various foot and ankle deformities in cerebral palsy and their management.
Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan  www.orthodnb.com

DNB Orthopaedics Theory December 2009

Paper 1
1. Post-operative pain management. Describe patient control analgesia. 
2. Clinical features and management of stove in chest. 
3. Indications of Limb salvage surgery in malignant bone tumors. Describe the techniques of limb salvage in osteosarcoma. 
4. Uses of botulinum neurotoxin in Orthopaedic surgery. 
5. Define pigmented villonodular synovitis. Describe pathology, clinical features, diagnosis & its treatment. 
6. Give a functional classification of muscles around the shoulder. Enumerate the indications for shoulder arthrodesis. What are the pre-requisites for a good result? Describe any one technique of shoulder arthrodesis. 
7. Describe pathophysiology of nerve compression (entrapment) syndromes. Enumerate various syndromes of nerve entrapment. Give an outline of the management of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome. 
8. What is traumatic arthrotomy of the knee joint? What is fluid challenge test to confirm the diagnosis in doubtful cases? Outline the principles of management. 
9. What are the various causes of late onset paraplegia in tuberculosis of spine? Describe the investigative modalities and outline the principles of management. 
10. Describe the management of unicompartmental osteoarthrosis knee. 

Paper 2
1. Management of septic arthritis in children,
2. Pathophysiology, types and clinical features of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
3. Prognostic factors and outcome in the treatment of Perthe’s disease
4. Describe Madelung deformity, classification, clinical features and management of madelung's deformity
5. Classify congenital dislocation of knee. Comment on differential diagnosis and management
6. Draw a diagram of Floor Reaction Orthosis, What is a good indication for its use. Describe mechanism of action
7. Orthopaedic manifestation of neurofibromatosis
8. Describe muscular dynamics in calcaneovalgus deformity. Describe management in patients before and after attaining skeletal maturity
9. Classification of neurogenic bladder and management
10. What are closed chain and open chain exercises and discuss ACL rehabilitation protocol


Paper 3
1. Classification, management and complication of fractures of the femoral head and neck in children
2. What are Monteggia equivalents, discuss the principles of management of Monteggia fracture dislocation in children
3. Principles of management of a pulseless hand after supracondylar fractures in children
4. Role of ultrasound in fracture healing
5. Subacromial impingement syndrome
6. Describe indications for amputation, Principles of lower limb amputation in children
7. What is Mangled Extremity severity score(MESS), describe principles of flap coverage in proximal one third of tibia
8. Classify ankle fractures, which pattern has syndesmotic instability, what is their management?
9. What are biodegradable implants, what is their chemical composition? Mention the indications of their use, advantage and disadvantage of their use
10. What is central cord syndrome, describe its clinical presentation. How will you manage such a case?

Paper 4
1. Osteochondral allograft transplantation. Mention indications for the procedure
2. Role of Pamidronate in bone metastasis
3. What do you understand by patellar instability, describe the principles of management, before and after skeletal maturity?
4. Enumerate modalities leading to biological enhancement of fracture healing. Mention the methods of preservation of allogenic bone grafts. Comment on mode of action, advantages and disadvantages
5. Describe the pathogenesis of hallux valgus deformity; describe the role of metatarsus primary varus in the pathogenesis. How will you manage an adolescent girl with severe hallux valgus?
6. Describe various types of rickets; describe biochemical changes and clinical presentation of various types of rickets!
7. Define osteoporosis. Comment on types, causes and management
8. What is highly cross linked polyethylene? How is it manufactured? How has it affected modern total hip arthroplasty?
9. Anatomy of Lisfranc joint, and management of injuries around the joint
10. Describe gate control theory of pain. What is transcutaneous nerve stimulation and its indications?

Compiled Dr. Prashant Madan Mohan   www.orthodnb.com

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